Argentina and Chile in the black list of U.S. piracy

Ambassador Michael B.G. Froman

Office of the United States Trade Representative






It has been 25 years since the first Special 301 Report was published in 1989. The first report,

called a “Fact Sheet,” highlighted 25 trading partners – eight on the Priority Watch List and 17

on the Watch List.


Over the past 25 years, the Special 301 Report has identified positive advances as well as areas

of continued concern. The Report has reflected changing technologies, promoted best practices,

and situated these critical issues in their policy context, underscoring the importance of

intellectual property rights protection and enforcement to the United States and our trading



During this period, there has been significant progress in a variety of countries. For instance,

Korea, which appeared on the Priority Watch List in the original 1989 Fact Sheet, has since been

removed from both the Priority Watch List and the Watch List. Korea has transformed itself

from a country in need of intellectual property rights enforcement into a country with a

reputation for cutting-edge innovation as well as high-quality, high-tech manufacturing. Korea is

now one of the top patent filers internationally and a U.S. trade agreement partner with state-of-

the art standards of intellectual property rights protection and enforcement. Italy, which was first

placed on the Watch List in 1989, is removed from the Watch List in 2014 in recognition of its

latest effort, addressing copyright piracy over the Internet. Likewise, the Philippines, which was

first placed on the Watch List in 1989, is removed from the Watch List in 2014 based on

sustained actions that the Philippine government has undertaken to improve intellectual property

rights protection and civil and administrative enforcement in the Philippines. There have also

been important advances in many other markets over the past 25 years that have been reflected in

the Special 301 Report, including in Australia, Israel, Japan, Qatar, Spain, Taiwan, the United

Arab Emirates, and Uruguay.


Still, considerable concerns remain. In 2014, 10 countries are on the Priority Watch List and 27

countries are on the Watch List. Several countries, including Chile, China, India, Indonesia,

Thailand, and Turkey, have been listed every year since the Report’s inception.


The Special 301 Report serves a critical function by identifying opportunities and challenges

facing our innovative and creative industries in foreign markets and by promoting the job

creation, economic development, and many other benefits that effective intellectual property

protection and enforcement support. The Special 301 Report informs the public and our trading

partners and can serve as a positive catalyst for change. USTR remains committed to

meaningful and sustained engagement with our trading partners, with the goal of resolving these






The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is responsible for the preparation

of this Report. United States Trade Representative Michael Froman gratefully acknowledges the

contributions of all USTR staff to the writing and production of this Report. USTR extends its

thanks to partner agencies, including the Departments of State, the Treasury, Justice, Agriculture,

Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Services, and Homeland Security, and the U.S. Copyright



In preparing the Report, substantial information was solicited from U.S. Embassies around the

world, from U.S. Government agencies, and from interested stakeholders. The draft of this

Report was developed through the Special 301 Subcommittee of the interagency Trade Policy

Staff Committee.


April 2014



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………..6

Public Engagement………………………………………………………………………………………………………..6

Country Placement ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7

2014 Special 301 List ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Out-of-Cycle Reviews ……………………………………………………………………………………………………8

Out-of-Cycle Review of Notorious Markets ……………………………………………………………………..8

Format of the Special 301 Report ……………………………………………………………………………………8


AND ENFORCEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………………..10

Positive Developments …………………………………………………………………………………………………10

Best IPR Practices by Trading Partners …………………………………………………………………………..12

Initiatives to Strengthen IPR Protection and Enforcement Internationally ……………………………13

Trends in Trademark Counterfeiting and Copyright Piracy ……………………………………………….18

Digital, Internet, and Broadcast Piracy ……………………………………………………………………………20

Government Use of Software ………………………………………………………………………………………..23

Trademark Issues and Domain Name Disputes ………………………………………………………………..23

Geographical Indications ………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Intellectual Property and Health Policy …………………………………………………………………………..25

Supporting Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Innovation through Improved Market

Access ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….26

Implementation of the WTO TRIPS Agreement ………………………………………………………………27

WTO Dispute Settlement ……………………………………………………………………………………………..28

Interagency Trade Enforcement Center …………………………………………………………………………..29

SECTION II. COUNTRY REPORTS ……………………………………………………………………………….30

Determination in Section 301 Investigation of Ukraine ……………………………………………..30

PRIORITY WATCH LIST …………………………………………………………………………………………..30

China ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….30

India …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..37

Russia …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Algeria ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..44

Argentina …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….44

Chile …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..44

Indonesia …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….45

Pakistan ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Thailand ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..46

Venezuela ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………46

WATCH LIST ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

Barbados ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..47

Bolivia ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..47

Brazil ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….48

Bulgaria ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………48

Canada ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..49

Colombia …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50

Costa Rica …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50

Dominican Republic ……………………………………………………………………………………………..51

Ecuador ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………51

Egypt ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

Finland ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

Greece ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..52

Guatemala …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53

Jamaica ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….53

Kuwait ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54

Lebanon ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………54

Mexico ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….54

Paraguay ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..55

Peru ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………55

Romania ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..56

Tajikistan …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….56

Trinidad and Tobago …………………………………………………………………………………………….56

Turkey ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..57


Uzbekistan …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..58

Vietnam ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………58

ANNEX 1. SPECIAL 301 STATUTORY BASIS ……………………………………………………………….59


AND CAPACITY BUILDING …………………………………………………………………………………………60


THE WIPO COPYRIGHT TREATY (WCT) ……………………………………………………………………..63 6





The Special 301 Report is the result of an annual review of the state of intellectual property

rights (IPR) protection and enforcement in U.S. trading partners around world, which the Office

of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) conducts pursuant to Section 182 of the Trade

Act of 1974, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 and the

Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. § 2242).


This Report reflects the Administration’s continued resolve to encourage and maintain adequate

and effective IPR protection and enforcement worldwide. It identifies a wide range of concerns,

including: (a) the deterioration in IPR protection, enforcement, and market access for persons

relying on IPR in a number of trading partners; (b) reported inadequacies in trade secret

protection in China, India, and elsewhere, as well as an increasing incidence of trade secret

misappropriation; (c) troubling “indigenous innovation” policies that may unfairly disadvantage

U.S. rights holders in China; (d) the continuing challenges of copyright piracy over the Internet

in countries such as Brazil, China, India, and Russia; (and) market access barriers, including

nontransparent, discriminatory or otherwise trade-restrictive measures, that appear to impede

access to healthcare; and (f) other ongoing, systemic IPR enforcement issues in many trading

partners around the world.


USTR looks forward to working closely with the governments of the trading partners that are

identified in this year’s Special 301 Report, to address both emerging and continuing concerns,

and to continue to build on the positive results that many of these governments have achieved.


Public Engagement


USTR continued to enhance public engagement in this year’s Special 301 process, to facilitate

sound, well-balanced assessments of IPR protection and enforcement efforts of particular trading

partners, and to help ensure that the Special 301 review is based on a full understanding of the

various IPR issues in trading partner markets. USTR requested written submissions from the

public through a notice published in the Federal Register on January 3, 2014. In addition, on

February 24, USTR conducted a public hearing that provided the opportunity for interested

persons to testify before the interagency Special 301 Subcommittee about issues relevant to the

review. The hearing featured testimony from witnesses such as representatives of foreign

governments, industry, and non-governmental organizations. For the first time, USTR recorded

and posted on its website the testimony at the Special 301 hearing, and also offered a two-week

post-hearing comment period during which hearing participants and interested parties could

submit additional information in support of, or in response to, hearing testimony. The 2014

Federal Register notice – and post-hearing comment period – drew submissions from over 100

interested parties, including 21 trading partner governments. These submissions are available to

the public online at, docket number USTR-2013-0040. The public can

access both the video and transcript of the hearing at 7


Country Placement


The Special 301 designations and actions announced in this Report are the result of deliberations

among all relevant agencies within the U.S. Government, informed by extensive consultation

with affected stakeholders, foreign governments, the U.S. Congress, and other interested parties.


USTR, together with the Special 301 Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee,

conducts a balanced assessment of U.S. trading partners’ IPR protection and enforcement, as

well as related market access issues, in accordance with the statutory criteria set out by the U.S.

Congress. (See Annex I).


This assessment is necessarily conducted on a case-by-case basis, taking into account diverse

factors such as a trading partner’s level of development, its international obligations and

commitments, the concerns of rights holders and other interested parties, and the trade and

investment policies of the United States. It is informed by the various cross-cutting issues and

trends identified below in Section I – Developments in Intellectual Property Rights Protection

and Enforcement. Each assessment is based upon the specific facts and circumstances that shape

IPR protection and enforcement regimes in a particular trading partner.


In the year ahead, USTR will continue its bilateral engagement with the governments of the

trading partners that are discussed in this Report. In preparation for, and in the course of, those

interactions, USTR will:


 Engage with U.S. stakeholders, the U.S. Congress, and other interested parties to ensure

that the U.S. Government’s position is well-informed by the full range of views on the

pertinent issues;


 Conduct extensive discussions with individual trading partners regarding their respective

IPR regimes;


 Encourage those trading partners to engage fully, and with the greatest degree of

transparency, with the full range of stakeholders on IPR matters; and


 Identify, where possible, appropriate ways in which the U.S. Government can be of

assistance. (See Annex 2 for examples).


USTR will conduct these discussions in a manner that both advances the policy goals of the

United States and respects the importance of meaningful policy dialogue with U.S. trading

partners. Additionally, USTR will continue to work closely with other U.S. Government

agencies to ensure consistency of U.S. trade policy objectives with other Administration policies.


2014 Special 301 List


The Special 301 Subcommittee of the TPSC reviewed 82 trading partners in this year’s Special

301 process. The Subcommittee received stakeholder input on nearly 100 trading partners, but

focused the review on those submissions that complied with the requirement in the Federal 8


Register notice to identify whether a particular trading partner should be named as a Priority

Foreign Country (PFC), placed on the Priority Watch List (PWL) or Watch List (WL), or not

listed in the Report, and that were received by the deadlines provided in the notice. Following

extensive research and analysis, USTR has listed 37 trading partners as follows:


Priority Watch List: Algeria; Argentina; Chile; China; India; Indonesia; Pakistan;

Russia; Thailand; and Venezuela; and


Watch List: Barbados; Belarus; Bolivia; Brazil; Bulgaria; Canada; Colombia; Coast

Rica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; Finland; Greece; Guatemala; Jamaica;

Kuwait; Lebanon; Mexico; Paraguay; Peru; Romania; Tajikistan; Trinidad and Tobago;

Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; and Vietnam.


The Report also provides an update on the results of the Section 301 investigation of Ukraine

following Ukraine’s designation as a Priority Foreign Country on May 1, 2013.


Out-of-Cycle Reviews


An Out-of-Cycle Review (OCR) is a tool that USTR uses to encourage progress on IPR issues of

concern. It provides an opportunity for heightened engagement and cooperation with trading

partners to address and remedy such issues. Successful resolution of specific IPR issues of

concern can also lead to a change in a trading partner’s Special 301status outside of the typical

time frame for the annual Special 301 Report. In the coming months, USTR will conduct OCRs

of Priority Watch List country India and Watch List countries Kuwait and Paraguay. Details

appear in the country-specific discussions below. Although Spain is not listed in the 2014

Special 301 Report, USTR will continue to conduct an OCR of Spain, announced in 2013, that is

focused in particular on concrete steps taken by Spain to combat copyright piracy over the

Internet. USTR may conduct additional OCRs of other trading partners as circumstances

warrant, or as requested by the trading partner.


Out-of-Cycle Review of Notorious Markets


In 2010, USTR began publishing the Notorious Markets List as an OCR separately from the

annual Special 301 Report. The Notorious Markets List identifies selected markets, including

online markets, that are reportedly engaged in piracy and counterfeiting, according to

information submitted to USTR in response to a request for comments pursuant to a Federal

Register notice. USTR requested such comments on September 20, 2013, and published the

2013 Notorious Markets List on February 12, 2014. USTR plans to conduct its next Notorious

Markets OCR in the fall of 2014. The Notorious Markets List is available at


Format of the Special 301 Report


The Special 301 Report is divided into the following two Sections and three Annexes.


 Section I. Developments in Intellectual Property Rights Protection and Enforcement

discusses broad global trends and issues in IPR protection and enforcement that the U.S.

Government works to address on a daily basis. 9


 Section II. Country Reports includes descriptions of issues of concern with respect to

particular trading partners.


 Annex 1 describes the statutory basis of the Special 301 Report.


 Annex 2 highlights U. S. Government-sponsored technical assistance and capacity

building efforts.


 Annex 3 highlights new ratifications and accessions to the World Intellectual Property

Organization (WIPO) Performances and Phonograms Treaty (PPT) and the WIPO

Copyright Treaty (WCT) (collectively, the WIPO Internet Treaties). 10






An important part of the mission of USTR is to support and implement the Administration’s

commitment to protect vigorously the interests of U.S. holders of intellectual property rights

overseas while preserving the incentives that ensure access to and widespread dissemination of

the fruits of innovation and creativity. IPR infringement, including trademark counterfeiting and

copyright piracy, causes significant financial losses for rights holders and legitimate businesses

around the world. It mines under key U.s. comparative advantages in innovation and creativity,

to the detriment of American businesses and workers. In its most pernicious forms, IPR

infringement endangers the public. Some counterfeit products, such as semiconductors,

automobile parts, and medicines, pose significant risks to consumer health and safety. In

addition, trade in counterfeit and pirated products often fuels cross-border organized criminal

networks and hinders the sustainable economic development of many countries.


Because fostering innovation and creativity is essential to U.S. prosperity, competitiveness, and

the support of an estimated 40 million U.S. jobs that directly or indirectly rely on intellectual

property-intensive industries, USTR works to protect American innovation and creativity with all

the tools of U.S. trade policy, including this Report.


Positive Developments


The United States welcomes the following important steps by our trading partners in 2013 and

early 2014.


 Algeria – In October 2013, Algeria submitted its instrument of accession to the WIPO

Internet Treaties. Adopted in Geneva in December 1996, the treaties are designed to

maintain the protection of the rights of authors, performers, and producers of phonograms

in the digital age. The treaties entered into force for Algeria on January 31, 2014.


 China – In August 2013, the National People’s Congress enacted important amendments

to China’s Trademark Law, including provisions to combat trademark squatting, expand

protection to sound marks, permit multi-class registration, and streamline application and

appeal procedures. The United States welcomes these long-sought reforms, but notes that

a number of important issues not clarified in the law need to be addressed in

implementing regulations that are still under development. The United States will

continue to work closely with China to address these concerns as the implementing

regulations are drafted, adopted, and enter into force. The United States also looks

forward to pending reforms of China’s patent, copyright, trade secrets, and other IP-

related laws and regulations.


 European Union (BE) – On November 28, 2013, the European Commission introduced

a proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the 11


Protection of Undisclosed Know-How and Business Information (Trade Secrets) Against

Their Unlawful Acquisition, Use and Disclosure. This Directive would harmonize civil

trade secret law throughout the EU. The United States welcomes this important step and

looks forward to continued progress on this draft measure specifically, and on EU efforts

to protect trade secrets from theft and misappropriation generally.


 Israel – On January 23, 2014, Israel passed patent legislation that satisfied its remaining

commitments under a 2010 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the United

States. As a result of the successful execution of the MOU, Israel has taken legal and

regulatory measures to make its patent system more transparent, efficient, and effective,

and was removed from the Watch List earlier this year.


 Italy – Italy is removed from the Watch List in the 2014 Special 301 Report in

recognition of the Italian Communications Regulatory Authority’s (AGCOM) adoption,

on December 12, 2013, of long-awaited regulations to combat copyright piracy over the

Internet. The regulations, which entered into force on March 31, 2014, provide notice-

and-takedown procedures that incorporate due process safeguards and establish a

mechanism for addressing large-scale piracy. The adoption and entry into force of these

regulations is a significant achievement, resulting from intensive efforts over many years,

which the United States strongly welcomes. We look forward to continuing to work with

Italy on our shared commitment to IPR protection and enforcement, and will closely

monitor Italy’s implementation of these regulations.


 Paraguay – On October 10, 2013, President Cartes signed the implementing regulation

(Decree 460) for Law 4798 of 2012 that created the National Directorate of Intellectual

Property (DINAPI). DINAPI is now the Paraguayan government authority responsible

for the administration of copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial designs, and

geographic indications. Additionally, the law authorizes DINAPI’s enforcement arm, the

General Enforcement Directorate, to conduct administrative investigations and initiate

proceedings at customs checkpoints and businesses.


 Philippines – The Philippines is removed from the Watch List in the 2014 Special 301

Report. This decision was based on the collective weight of a series of significant

legislative reforms, a move toward more effective civil and administrative enforcement

efforts, IP authorities’ sustained and constructive engagement with the U.S. Government

and members of the private sector, and commitments to continue to address remaining

concerns. 12


The United States will continue to work with its trading partners to further enhance IPR

protection and enforcement during the coming year.


Best IPR Practices by Trading Partners


USTR highlights the following best practices by trading partners in the area of IPR protection

and enforcement.


 USTR continues to encourage trading partners to work with the United States to develop

action plans to advance the protection and enforcement of IPR. USTR welcomes the

offer of the Government of Bulgaria to develop an action plan, and is working with a

number of other trading partners, including the Government of Pakistan, to develop

action plans to address the issues discussed in the Special 301 Report. USTR looks

forward to continuing to work with these trading partners to finalize and implement these

action plans as well as to work with other trading partners on implementing existing

action plans.


 USTR supports transparency and meaningful stakeholder participation in the

development of laws, regulations, procedures, and other measures as well as meaningful

engagement between governments and stakeholders. Stakeholders report that such

transparency and participation allows governments to avoid unintended consequences

and makes it easier for stakeholders to comply with legislative or regulatory changes

once adopted and implemented.


 Cooperation among different government agencies is another example of a best practice.

Several countries, including the United States, have introduced IPR enforcement

coordination mechanisms or agreements to enhance interagency cooperation. In

Paraguay, DINAPI, operational since October 2013, has signed several inter-institutional

agreements to enhance cooperation on IPR, including with Paraguayan enforcement

agencies that have jurisdiction over customs and other IP-related violations. In Algeria,

the National Office of Intellectual Property Rights (WAVE) signed cooperation

agreements with Algerian customs and other Algerian law enforcement entities on

training and operational coordination to strengthen efforts to interdict illicit goods. The

Philippines’ National IPR Committee, led by that country’s Intellectual Property Office,

provides another example of enhanced interagency cooperation. The United States

encourages other trading partners to consider adopting similar cooperative IPR



 Several trading partners have participated or supported participation in innovative

mechanisms that enable government and private sector rights holders to voluntarily

donate or license IPR on mutually agreed terms and conditions. In these arrangements,

parties use existing IPR to advance innovation and public policy goals. The United 13


States was the first government in the world to share its patents with the Medicines Patent

Pool, an independent foundation hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO). The

United States hopes that additional public and private patent holders will explore

voluntary licenses with the Medicines Patent Pool as one of many innovative ways to

help improve the availability of medicines in developing countries. The patents that the

United States shared were related to protease inhibitor medicines, primarily used to treat

drug-resistant HIV infections. In addition, the United States, Brazil, and South Africa are

providers in the WIPO Re:Search Consortium, a voluntary mechanism for making IPR

and know how available on mutually agreed terms and conditions to the global health

research community to find cures or treatments for neglected tropical diseases, and for

malaria and tuberculosis. Other countries have joined as supporters.


 Finally, another best practice is the active participation of government officials in

capacity building efforts and in training. As further explained in Annex 2, the United

States encourages foreign governments to make training opportunities available to their

officials, and it actively engages with its trading partners in capacity building efforts both

in the United States and abroad.


Initiatives to Strengthen IPR Protection and Enforcement Internationally


The United States works to promote adequate and effective protection and enforcement of IPR

through the following mechanisms.


 Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): The Trans-Pacific Partnership is a key initiative

through which the United States seeks to advance multifaceted U.S. trade and investment

interests in the Asia-Pacific region by negotiating an ambitious, 21st-century regional

trade agreement along with Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Malaysia,

Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam, in addition to Japan, which joined

negotiations in 2013. The TPP negotiations are being undertaken with this group of like-

minded countries with the goal of creating a platform for integration across the region,

including strong standards for the protection and enforcement of IPR and for addressing

emerging issues in the 21st century.


 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP): On March 20, 2013, the

USTR notified the U.S. Congress of the President’s intent to enter into negotiations for a

comprehensive trade and investment agreement with the EU. Since that notification, the

United States and the EU have held four rounds of negotiations, most recently during the

week of March 10, 2014. With respect to IPR, the United States and the EU provide

among the highest levels of IPR protection and the most robust IPR enforcement in the

world. In T-TIP, the United States is pursuing a targeted approach on IPR that will

reflect the shared U.S.-EU objective of high-level IPR protection and enforcement, and

sustained and enhanced joint leadership on IPR issues. The United States will seek new 14


opportunities to advance and defend the interests of U.S. creators, innovators, businesses,

farmers, and workers with respect to strong protection and effective enforcement of IPR,

including their ability to compete in foreign markets.


 World Trade Organization (WTO): The multilateral structure of the WTO provides

opportunities for USTR to lead engagement with trading partners on IPR issues in several

contexts, including through accession negotiations for prospective Members, the Council

for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Council), and the

Dispute Settlement Body. In the past year, the United States sponsored discussions in the

TRIPS Council on the positive role of IPR protection and enforcement in contributing to

national innovation environments, including with respect to low-cost innovation and

social entrepreneurship, and university research and technology transfer partnerships.

These discussions, which involved contributions from a broad array of WTO Members,

including developed, developing, and least-developed countries, addressed national IP

strategies to promote innovation, focusing in particular on the role IP plays in driving

critical financing, commercialization, and partnerships to bring ideas to market. The

United States has also actively engaged in TRIPS Council discussions on the positive role

of IP in promoting climate technology innovation and transfer. These discussions

highlighted the global nature of climate technology innovation and the beneficial

contributions of IPR protection and enforcement on technology innovation and transfer.

Additionally, the United States co-sponsored discussions on IP and sports, with broad

engagement from numerous and diverse WTO Members, focusing on the critical

relationship between sports (including major sporting events such as the Olympics,

World Cup, and national leagues) and IP (including copyright for broadcasting content,

patents and trade secrets for cutting-edge sports equipment, and trademarks for branding

and sponsorship).


 Bilateral and Regional Initiatives: The United States works with many trading partners

to strengthen IPR protection and enforcement through the provisions of bilateral and

regional agreements, including trade agreements). In addition, Trade and Investment

Framework Agreements (TIFAs) between the United States and numerous trading

partners around the world have facilitated discussions on enhancing IPR protection and



 Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA): On October 5, 2012, Japan became

the first signatory to ACTA to deposit its instrument of acceptance. The United States

continues to work with Japan and other negotiating parties to bring the ACTA into force.

The ACTA effort, launched in October 2007, brought together a number of like-minded

countries prepared to embrace strengthened IPR enforcement and cooperative

enforcement practices. ACTA signatories are Australia, Canada, Japan, South Korea,

Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, and the United States. The European Union 15


and 22 EU Member States signed the Agreement in January 2012, but it was not

approved by the European Parliament. For signatories, the next step towards bringing the

ACTA into force is to deposit instruments of ratification, acceptance, or approval. The

ACTA will enter into force for those signatories 30 days following the deposit of the

sixth such instrument. The ACTA includes innovative provisions to deepen international

cooperation and to promote strong enforcement practices, and will ultimately help sustain

American jobs in innovative and creative industries.


 Trade Preference Program Reviews: USTR, in coordination with other agencies,

reviews IPR practices in connection with the implementation of trade preference

programs, such as the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program, and regional

programs, including the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act and the Caribbean

Basin Trade Partnership Act.


 Enhanced International Cooperation: USTR, in coordination with other U.S.

Government agencies, looks forward to continuing engagement with trading partners in

bilateral, regional, and multilateral fora to improve the global IPR environment. In

addition to the work described above, the United States anticipates engaging with its

trading partners on IPR-related initiatives in multilateral and regional fora such as the

U.S.-EU Summit, G-8, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), World Intellectual

Property Organization (WIPO), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and

Development (OECD). 16


Trade Secrets and Forced Technology Transfer


International and foreign market issues


The Special 301 Report again reflects an emphasis on the need to protect and enforce trade

secrets. Companies in a wide variety of industry sectors – including information and

communication technologies, services, biopharmaceuticals, manufacturing, and environmental

technologies – rely on the ability to protect and enforce their trade secrets and rights in other

proprietary information. Indeed, trade secrets are often among a company’s core business assets,

and a company’s competitiveness may depend on its capacity to protect such assets.


Trade secret theft, including industrial and economic espionage, which imposes significant costs

on U.S. companies and threatens the security of the United States, appears to be escalating. If a

company’s trade secrets are stolen, it may be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to recoup past

investments in research and development, and future innovation may be compromised.

Moreover, trade secret theft threatens to diminish U.S. competitiveness around the globe, and

puts American jobs at risk. The reach of trade secret theft into critical commercial and defense

technologies poses threats to U.S. national security interests as well.


For these reasons, the United States is concerned by gaps in trade secret protection and

enforcement, and the apparent growth of trade secret theft, particularly in China, as reported by

various sources, including the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (ONCIX).

The ONCIX publication titled Foreign Spies Stealing U.S. Economic Secrets in Cyberspace,

states that “Chinese actors are the world’s most active and persistent perpetrators of economic

espionage.” Theft may arise in a variety of circumstances, including those involving departing

employees, failed joint ventures, cyber intrusion and hacking, and misuse of information

submitted to government entities for purposes of complying with regulatory obligations. In

practice, effective remedies, including under Chinese law, appear to be difficult to obtain.


The United States urges its trading partners to ensure that they have robust systems for protecting

and enforcing trade secrets, including the availability of deterrent criminal penalties for trade

secret theft. USTR will monitor developments in this area.


U.S. Government strategy


On February 20, 2013, the U.S. Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator (IPEC) issued the

Administration Strategy on Mitigating the Theft of U.S. Trade Secrets. The Strategy highlights

U.S. efforts to combat the theft of trade secrets that could be used by foreign governments or

companies to gain an unfair economic advantage by harming U.S. innovation and creativity,



 Focusing diplomatic efforts to protect trade secrets overseas, which include sustained and

coordinated engagement with trading partners, the use of trade policy tools (including

through the use of the Special 301 Report), cooperation, and training, among others;


 Promoting voluntary best practices by private industry to protect trade secrets, including

information security, physical security, and human resources policies; 17


 Enhancing domestic law enforcement operations, especially through the activities of the

Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigations, Department of Defense, and the

National IPR Coordination Center;


 Improving domestic legislation to protect against trade secret theft, as exemplified by the

Theft of Trade Secrets Clarification Act of 2012, which clarified provisions in the

Economic Espionage Act with respect to the theft of trade secret source codes, and the

Foreign and Economic Espionage Penalty Enhancement Act of 2012, which increased

criminal penalties for economic espionage; and


 Conducting public awareness campaigns and stakeholder outreach to encourage all

stakeholders to be aware of the dangers of trade secret theft.


Trade secret theft can be viewed as a form of forced technology transfer that foreign actors may

use to undermine U.S. competitive advantage. Foreign governments may also adopt trade-

distortive policies, which are sometimes designed to promote “indigenous innovation” by forcing

U.S. companies to transfer their technology or other valuable commercial information.

Examples of these policies, include, but are not limited to:


 Requiring the transfer of technology as a condition for obtaining regulatory approvals or

otherwise securing access to a market, or for allowing a company to continue to do

business in the market;


 Directing state-owned enterprises in innovative sectors to seek non-commercial terms

from their foreign business partners, including with respect to the acquisition and use or

licensing of IPR;


 Failing to effectively enforce IPR, including patents, trademarks, trade secrets, and

copyrights, thereby allowing national firms to gain a competitive advantage over their

foreign competitors through misappropriation or infringement of the competitor’s IPR;


 Failing to take meaningful measures to prevent or deter cyber intrusions and other

unauthorized activities;


 Requiring use of, or providing preferences to, products or services in which IPR is either

developed or owned locally, including with respect to government procurement;


 Manipulating the standards development process to create unfair advantages for national

firms, including with respect to the terms on which IPR is licensed; and


 Requiring the submission of excessive (and often unnecessary) confidential business

information for regulatory approval purposes, and failing to appropriately protect such

information from unfair commercial use by, and disclosure to, third parties. 18


The United States urges that, in formulating policies to promote innovation, trading partners,

including India and China, take account of the increasingly cross-border nature of commercial

research and development, and of the importance of voluntary and mutually agreed commercial



Intellectual Property and the Environment


Strong IPR protection is vital for development, and is critical to responding to environmental

challenges, including climate change. IPR protection is essential to facilitate access to today’s

technologies, and to promote tomorrow’s innovation. IPR provides incentives to invest in green

technologies, and can promote economic growth and create jobs in the green technology sector.

Without such incentives, businesses are reluctant to invest or enter into technology transfer

arrangements in countries that lack effective IPR protection and enforcement. IPR is also an

important driver of university research in the green technology sector. In the absence of such

technologies, society may be deprived of critical advances to meet environmental challenges,

including the mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change.


Certain national policies and practices advanced domestically and in multilateral fora may have

the unintended effect of undermining national and global efforts to address serious

environmental challenges. For example, India’s National Manufacturing Policy promotes the

compulsory licensing of patented technologies as a means of effectuating technology transfer

with respect to green technologies. India has pressed to multilateralize this approach to green

technologies through its proposals in the negotiations under the United Nations Framework

Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These actions will discourage rather than promote

the investment in, and dissemination of, green technologies, including those technologies that

contribute to climate change adaptation and mitigation.


The United States continues to work to ensure robust IP protection and enforcement, which gives

inventors and creators the confidence to: engage in foreign direct investment, joint ventures,

local partnerships, and licensing arrangements; collaborate with foreign counterparts; to open

research facilities in markets abroad; establish local operations and work with local

manufacturers and suppliers; create jobs, including local worker training; and invest in

infrastructure for the production, adoption, and delivery of green technology goods and services,

without fear of misappropriation of their IPR. Strong IPR protection is, therefore, not only

critical to the objective of addressing environmental challenges and developing a global response

to climate change, but to national economic growth. The United States promotes strong IPR

protection and enforcement as an environmental as well as an economic imperative, providing

critical developmental benefits for developing and least-developed countries in particular.


Trends in Trademark Counterfeiting and Copyright Piracy


The problems of trademark counterfeiting and copyright piracy continue on a global scale and

involve mass production and sales of a vast array of fake goods, including counterfeit

semiconductors, medicines, health care products, food and beverages, automobile parts, such as

air bags, aircraft parts, apparel and footwear, toothpaste, toys, shampoos, razors, electronics,

batteries, chemicals, sporting goods, motion pictures, and music. 19


Consumers, legitimate producers, and governments are harmed by rampant trademark

counterfeiting and copyright piracy. Consumers may be harmed by fraudulent and potentially

dangerous counterfeit products, including medicines, auto and airplane parts, and

semiconductors. Producers face the risk of diminished profits and loss of reputation when

consumers purchase fake products, and governments may lose tax revenue and find it more

difficult to attract investment. Infringers generally pay no taxes or duties, and often disregard

basic standards for worker health and safety and product quality and performance.


An example illustrating the extent of the economic harm arising from such trademark

counterfeiting and copyright piracy comes from India. In September 2013, the International

Chamber of Commerce and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry

published a study analyzing seven key industry sectors vulnerable to counterfeiting, piracy, and

smuggling, e.g., automotive parts, alcohol, computer hardware, mobile phones, packaged foods,

personal goods, and tobacco products. The study concluded that rights holders in 2012 suffered

lost sales in India amounting to 21.7 percent or approximately $11.9 billion due to these

problems. Collectively, the Indian government’s economic loss tied to these illicit activities

totaled approximately $4.26 billion, according to the study.


Industry reports trends in counterfeiting and piracy that include:


 Sustained growth in the piracy of copyrighted products in virtually all formats as well as

counterfeiting of trademarked goods. The involvement of criminal enterprises continues

to rise, often because piracy and counterfeiting offer enormous profits and little risk.

Such enterprises require little up-front capital investment, and even when they are

detected and prosecuted, the penalties imposed on them in many countries are very low

and therefore offer little or no deterrence against further infringements. Instead, the

penalties are viewed merely as a cost of doing business;


 Continued growth in the online sale of pirated and counterfeit hard goods that will soon

surpass the volume of such goods sold by street vendors and in other physical markets.

Enforcement authorities, unfortunately, face difficulties in responding to this trend.

Online advertisements for the sale of illicit physical goods that are delivered through

express mail shipments or by small consignments are found in many places;


 A continued increase in the use of legitimate services to deliver infringing goods, making

it more difficult for enforcement officials to detect these goods;


 An increase in the practice of shipping counterfeit products separately from labels and

packaging in order to evade enforcement efforts; and


 The emergence of Media Box piracy, whereby those boxes, often with capability to play

high definition content, are loaded with large quantities of pirated works or are

configured to facilitate the user’s access to websites featuring unlicensed content. This 20


problem has been reported in China (including Hong Kong), Indonesia, Malaysia,

Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.


The United States continues to urge trading partners to undertake more effective criminal and

border enforcement to stop the manufacture, import, export, transit, and distribution of pirated

and counterfeit goods. USTR engages extensively with its trading partners through bilateral

consultations, trade agreements, and international organizations, to ensure that penalties are

deterrent, and include significant monetary fines and meaningful sentences of imprisonment.

Additionally, important elements of a deterrent enforcement system include requirements that

pirated and counterfeit goods, as well as the materials and implements used for their production,

be seized and destroyed, rather than being re-exported or otherwise allowed to reenter the

channels of commerce. Such re-export or entrance into the channels of commerce creates IPR

enforcement problems and potential health and safety risks for other trading partners or for the

original country of importation. Providing enforcement officials with the authority to seize

suspect counterfeit trademark or pirated copyright goods during their import or export, or in

transit movement, without the need for a formal complaint from a rights holder is also critical to

effective enforcement. The U.S. Government supports trading partners through technical

assistance and sharing of best practices on enforcement, including destruction of seized goods.

(See Annex 2).


The manufacture and distribution of pharmaceutical products bearing counterfeit trademarks is a

growing problem that has important consequences for consumer health and safety. Such

trademark counterfeiting is one dimension of the larger problem of substandard medicines. The

United States notes its particular concern with the proliferation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals

manufactured, sold and distributed in trading partners such as Brazil, China, Indonesia, Lebanon,

Peru, Russia, and especially in India, the largest source of counterfeit pharmaceuticals shipped to

the United States. Reports indicate that anywhere from 10-40 percent of drugs sold in Indian

markets are counterfeit and could represent a serious threat to patient health and safety. The U.S.

Government, through the United States Agency for International Development, and other

agencies, supports programs in Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere that assist trading partners in

protecting the public against counterfeit medicines introduced into their markets.


In many cases, the bulk active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) that are used to manufacture

pharmaceuticals that bear counterfeit trademarks are not made according to good manufacturing

practices. Hence, these products may contain sub-standard and potentially hazardous materials.

For instance, in China, some domestic chemical manufacturers that produce API have avoided

regulatory oversight by failing to declare that bulk chemicals are intended for use in

pharmaceutical products. This contributes to China being a major source country for APIs used

in counterfeit pharmaceutical products. Although China has taken some welcome steps, such as

requiring manufacturers to register with the State Food and Drug Administration, more effective

regulatory controls are needed.


Digital, Internet, and Broadcast Piracy


The increased availability of broadband Internet connections around the world is generating

many benefits, from increased economic activity and new business models to greater access to

and exchange of information. However, this phenomenon has also made the Internet an 21


extremely efficient vehicle for disseminating copyright-infringing products, supplanting

legitimate opportunities for rights holders. The U.S. Government’s 2013 Notorious Markets List

includes examples of online marketplaces reportedly engaging in commercial-scale IPR

infringement, including sites hosted in or operated by parties located in Canada, China, the

Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Ukraine, and elsewhere.


Piracy over the Internet is a significant concern in many U.S. trading partners. Unauthorized

retransmission of live sports telecasts over the Internet continues to be a growing problem for

many trading partners, particularly China, and websites that link to infringing content are

exacerbating the problem.


U.S. copyright industries also report growing problems with piracy using mobile telephones,

tablets, flash drives, and other mobile technologies. In some countries, these devices are pre-

loaded with illegal content even before they are sold.


In addition to piracy of music and films, U.S. industry reports the emergence of pirate servers, or

“grey shards.” Players of cloud-based entertainment software access these unauthorized servers

to play copyrighted games that are made available through hacked software or circumvention of

technological protection measures, which are used by rights holders to control unauthorized

access to, and prevent unauthorized copying of, protected content.


The problem of online piracy is exacerbated due to the development and sale of devices that

allow for the circumvention of technological protection measures (TPM). Such devices include

“game copiers” and mod chips that make it possible to play pirated games on gaming systems.

Software that enables TPM circumvention is also distributed online. For example, SlySoft, a

company headquartered and operating in Antigua, developed and sells a program called “Any

DVD HD” that enables the user to defeat the encryption technology embedded in Blu-ray Discs

that prevents unauthorized reproduction and distribution. Antigua’s Copyright Act makes it

illegal to manufacture or import for sale or rental any such circumvention device. The

consortium of electronic manufacturers, software companies, and motion picture studios that

developed these technological protection measures has worked with the criminal enforcement

authorities in Antigua for over seven years to enforce this statute and have this case prosecuted.

In April 2014, the owner and operator of Slysoft was found guilty of providing tools to

circumvent encryption and was fined $30,000. It is unclear whether the Government of Antigua

and Barbuda will permit the site to continue operating now that its courts have determined the

conduct to be unlawful. The United States will continue to monitor the situation.


The United States continues to have serious concerns regarding Switzerland’s system of online

copyright protection and enforcement. The United States strongly encourages Switzerland to

demonstrate its commitment to copyright protection and to combating online piracy by taking

steps to ensure that rights holders can protect their rights. The United States welcomes many

aspects of the December 2013 report of the AGUR 12 working group on copyright and urges the

Swiss government to move forward expeditiously with measures to appropriately and effectively

address copyright piracy in Switzerland. The United States looks forward to working with Swiss

authorities in their heightened engagement with respect to this priority issue. 22


The United States also encourages trading partners to adopt appropriate measures where needed

to address the unauthorized camcording of motion pictures in theaters. The effects of this

conduct are not always limited to the market in which this unauthorized recording occurs. For

example, as discussed in more detail below, according to the Motion Pictures Distributors

Association of India, India has one of the highest rates of piracy of audiovisual works in the

world, and in 2012, the motion picture industry experienced losses estimated at $1.1 billion, an

increase of 15.79 percent from 2008.


Copies of copyright-protected material, including audiovisual works that have been camcorded,

are often distributed without authorization over the Internet. The United States encourages

trading partners to enhance enforcement efforts against this form of infringement by:

establishing deterrent penalties against camcording; strengthening enforcement against major

channels of piracy over the Internet, including with respect to notorious markets; and creating

specialized, trained enforcement units and undertaking special initiatives against Internet piracy.


Although copyright piracy over the Internet is rapidly supplanting physical piracy in many

markets around the world, the production of, and trade in, pirated optical discs remains a major

problems in many regions. In recent years, some trading partners, such as the Czech Republic,

Poland, Romania, and Russia, have made progress toward implementing controls on optical

media production. Other trading partners still need to adopt and implement legislation or

improve existing measures to combat illegal optical disc production and distribution, including

China, India, Paraguay, and Vietnam. The United States continues to urge those trading partners

who face challenges regarding illegal optical disc production to pass effective legislation to

counter this problem, and to enforce existing laws and regulations aggressively.


Finally, the United States encourages trading partners to implement the WIPO Internet Treaties

to provide, among other things, protection against the circumvention of technological protection

measures and protection for digital rights management information. (See Annex 3).


Caribbean copyright challenges


The United States also would like to highlight serious concerns regarding copyright protection

and enforcement in the Caribbean region: music licensing and cable and satellite broadcasting.

With respect to music licensing, cable operators and television and radio broadcasters in ten

countries in the region reportedly refuse to negotiate with performing rights organizations

(PROs) for compensation for public performance of music. In some instances, the local

governments themselves appear to control these cable operators and broadcasters, such as the

Government of Barbados, which owns and operates MCTV, a local cable provider. At the same

time, the PROs assert that they have struggled to advance their legal claims in the local courts,

which are backlogged and subject to chronic delays. Even where lawsuits have been decided in

favor of the PROs, the PROs report that there are difficulties in obtaining final payment. Rights

holders in the music industry have repeatedly identified Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and

Tobago as the Caribbean region’s most problematic markets because of the relative size of their

markets. However, a similar pattern of unlicensed cable-casting and broadcasting of copyrighted

music reportedly exists in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, St. Lucia,

and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 23


With regard to cable and satellite broadcasting of copyrighted television programming, Antigua

and Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and

St. Vincent and the Grenadines currently maintain a statutory licensing regime that includes a

requirement to pay royalties to rights holders. Rights holders assert, however, that they have not

received royalty payments from any company in any country in the region, with the notable

exception of payments made in 2013 by the Government of the Bahamas. Others in the region –

including Anguilla, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, Montserrat, Saint Maarten, and the Turks

and Caicos Islands – do not maintain statutory licensing regimes, and reportedly fail to intercede

when unauthorized companies intercept and retransmit copyrighted content without

remuneration. Again, it is important to note that some of these cable companies are currently or

formerly government-owned and operated.


The United States urges these governments to address these issues, and looks forward to

engaging on these challenges with the Caribbean Community and Common Market

(CARICOM), the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), and their member



U.S. concerns with respect to music licensing and unauthorized and uncompensated

retransmission of copyright-protected content are not limited to Caribbean markets. We will also

engage with other trading partners whose markets present similar challenges.


Government Use of Software


Under Executive Order 13103 issued in September 1998, U.S. Government agencies maintain

policies and procedures to ensure that they use only authorized business software. Pursuant to

the same directive, USTR has undertaken an initiative to work with other governments,

particularly in countries that are modernizing their software systems or where concerns have

been raised, to stop unauthorized government use of software. Considerable progress has been

made under this initiative, leading to numerous trading partners’ mandating that only authorized,

legitimate software may be used by their government bodies. Further work on this issue remains

with certain trading partners, such as China, Costa Rica, India, Morocco, Pakistan, Paraguay,

Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Ukraine, and Vietnam. The United States urges trading partners to

adopt and implement effective and transparent procedures to ensure legitimate governmental use

of software.


Trademark Issues and Domain Name Disputes


Trademarks help consumers distinguish a company’s products and services from competing

products and services, and thereby serve a critical source identification role. The goodwill

represented in a company’s trademarks is often one of the company’s most valuable business

assets. However, in numerous countries legal and procedural obstacles exist to securing and

enforcing trademark rights. Additionally, many countries lack transparency and consistency in

administrative registration procedures. In other countries, governments often do not provide the

full range of internationally-recognized trademark protections. For example, dozens of countries

do not offer a certification mark system for use by foreign or domestic industries. The lack of a

certification mark system can make it more difficult to secure protection for products with a

quality or characteristic that consumers associate with the product’s geographic origin. 24


Another area of concern for trademark holders is the protection of their trademarks against

unauthorized uses under top level domain extensions. U.S. rights holders face significant

trademark infringement and loss of valuable Internet traffic because of such uses. A related and

growing concern is that certain country code top level domain names (ccTLD) lack transparent

and predictable uniform domain name dispute resolution policies (UDRPs). Effective UDRPs

should assist in the quick and efficient resolution of these disputes. The United States

encourages its trading partners to provide procedures that allow for the protection of trademarks

used in domain names, and to ensure that dispute resolution procedures are available to prevent

the misuse of trademarks.


Geographical Indications


The United States is working intensively through bilateral and multilateral channels to advance

U.S. market access interests and to ensure that the trade initiatives of other countries, including

with respect to geographical indications (GIs), do not undercut U.S. industries’ market access.

GIs typically consist of place names (or words associated with a place) and they identify

products or services as having a particular quality, reputation, or other characteristic attributable

to their geographic origin.


The U.S. Government is actively involved in promoting and protecting access to foreign markets

for U.S. exporters whose products are identified by common names or generic terms, like

parmesan and mozzarella for cheese. The United States is pressing its objectives in a variety of

contexts, including in the WTO, WIPO and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) as well

as in our bilateral agreements. The United States is also engaging bilaterally to address GI-

related concerns, including with Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, the

European Union and its Member States, and the Philippines, among others. U.S. goals in this

regard include:


 Ensuring that grants of GI protection do not violate prior rights (for example, in cases in

which a U.S. company has a trademark that includes a place name);


 Ensuring that grants of GI protection do not deprive interested parties of the ability to use

generic or common terms, such as parmesan or mozzarella;


 Ensuring that interested persons have notice of, and opportunity to oppose, or to seek

cancellation of, any GI protection that is sought or granted; and


 Opposing efforts to amend the TRIPS Agreement to extend to other products the special

protection that is provided to GIs for wines and spirits.


Intellectual Property and Health Policy


Numerous comments in the 2014 Special 301 review highlighted concerns arising at the

intersection of IPR policy and health policy.


Intellectual property plays an important role in providing the incentives necessary for the 25


development and marketing of new medicines. An effective, transparent, and predictable IP

system is necessary for both manufacturers of innovative medicines and manufacturers of

generic medicines.


The 2001 WTO Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health recognized the

gravity of the public health problems afflicting many developing and least-developed countries,

especially those resulting from HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and other epidemics. As

affirmed in the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, the United States

respects a trading partner’s right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to

medicines for all. The United States also recognizes the role of IP protection in the development

of new medicines, while being mindful of the effect of IP protection on prices. The assessments

set forth in this Report are based on various critical factors, including, where relevant, the Doha

Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health.


The United States is firmly of the view that international obligations such as those in the TRIPS

Agreement have sufficient flexibility to allow trading partners to address the serious public

health problems that they may face. Consistent with this view, the United States respects its

trading partners’ rights to grant compulsory licenses in a manner consistent with the provisions

of the TRIPS Agreement and the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health,

and encourages its trading partners to consider ways to address their public health challenges

while maintaining IPR systems that promote innovation.


The United States also strongly supports the WTO General Council Decision on the

Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public

Health concluded in August 2003. Under this decision, Members are permitted, in accordance

with specified procedures, to issue compulsory licenses to export pharmaceutical products to

countries that cannot produce drugs for themselves. The WTO General Council adopted a

Decision in December 2005 that incorporated this solution into an amendment to the TRIPS

Agreement, and the United States became the first WTO Member to formally accept this

amendment. The United States hopes that at least two-thirds of the WTO membership accept

this amendment by the current deadline, December 31, 2015, at which point the amendment will

go into effect for those Members. The August 2003 waiver will remain in place and available

until the amendment takes effect.


The United States will work to ensure that the provisions of its bilateral and regional trade

agreements, as well as U.S. engagement in international organizations, including the United

Nations and related institutions such as WIPO and the WHO, are consistent with U.S.

Government policies concerning IPR and health policy and do not impede its trading partners

from taking measures necessary to protect public health. Accordingly, USTR will continue its

close cooperation with relevant agencies to ensure that public health challenges are addressed

and IPR protection and enforcement are supported as one of various mechanisms to promote

research and innovation.


Supporting Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Innovation through Improved Market



Among other mechanisms to support pharmaceutical and medical device innovation, USTR has

sought to reduce market access barriers, including those that discriminate against U.S. companies 26


or are not adequately transparent, in order to facilitate both affordable health care today and the

innovation that assures improved health care tomorrow. This year’s Special 301 Report

highlights concerns regarding market access barriers affecting pharmaceutical and medical

device products, particularly in Algeria, Indonesia, and India.


Measures, including those that are discriminatory, nontransparent or otherwise trade-restrictive,

have the potential to hinder market access in the pharmaceutical and medical device sector, and

potentially result in higher healthcare costs. For example, taxes or tariffs may be levied – often

in a non-transparent manner – on imported medicines and the increased expense associated with

those levies is then passed directly to healthcare institutions and patients. The United States

notes that, according to an October 2012 WTO report titled More Trade for Better Health?

International Trade and Tariffs on Health Products, India maintains the highest tariffs on

medicines, inputs to medicines, and medical devices among the WTO members identified in the

report. These tariffs, combined with other internal charges or measures, such as price controls

that appear to exempt domestically developed and manufactured medicines, can hinder the

Indian government’s efforts to promote increased access to healthcare products.


Moreover, unreasonable regulatory approval delays and non-transparent reimbursement policies

can impede a company’s ability to exercise its IP rights, and thereby discourage the development

and marketing of new drugs and other medical products. The criteria, rationale, and operation of

such measures are often nontransparent or not fully disclosed to patients or to pharmaceutical

and medical device companies seeking to market their products. USTR encourages trading

partners to provide appropriate mechanisms for transparency, procedural and due process

protections, and opportunities for public engagement in the context of their relevant health care



U.S. industry has expressed concerns regarding the policies of several trading partners, including

Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Korea, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Spain, Turkey, and Taiwan, on issues related to innovation in the pharmaceutical sector and

other aspects of health care goods and services. Examples include:


 With respect to New Zealand, U.S. industry has expressed serious concerns about the

policies and operation of New Zealand’s Pharmaceutical Management Agency

(PHARMAC), including, among other things, the lack of transparency, fairness, and

predictability of the PhARMAC pricing and reimbursement regime, as well as the

negative aspects of the overall climate for innovative medicines in New Zealand; and


 With respect to Turkey, U.S. industry continues to express significant concern

regarding the lack of fairness and the slow pace of pharmaceutical manufacturing



The United States is seeking to establish or continue dialogues with relevant trading partners to

address these and other concerns, and encourage a common understanding on questions related

to innovation in the pharmaceutical and medical device sectors. The United States also looks

forward to continuing its engagement with China, India, and other trading partners to promote

fair and transparent policies in this sector.



The United States, like many countries, faces healthcare challenges, including with respect to

aging populations and rising health care costs. The United States shares the objective of

continued improvement in the health and quality of life of its citizens, and the objective of

delivering efficient, responsive, and cost-effective high-quality health care to its population. The

United States looks forward to engaging with its trading partners on the concerns noted above.


Implementation of the WTO TRIPS Agreement


The TRIPS Agreement, one of the most significant achievements of the Uruguay Round (1986-

1995), requires all WTO Members to provide certain minimum standards of IPR protection and

enforcement. The TRIPS Agreement is the first broadly-subscribed multilateral IPR agreement

that is subject to mandatory dispute settlement provisions.


Developed country Members were required to implement the TRIPS Agreement fully as of

January 1, 1996. Developing country Members were given a transition period for many

obligations until January 1, 2000, and in some cases, until January 1, 2005. Nevertheless, certain

Members are still in the process of finalizing implementing legislation, and many are still

engaged in establishing adequate and effective IPR enforcement mechanisms.


Recognizing the particular challenges faced by least-developed country (LDC) Members, the

United States has worked closely with them and other WTO Members to extend the

implementation date for these countries. On June 11, 2013, the TRIPS Council reached

consensus on a decision to again extend the transition period under Article 66.1 of the TRIPS

Agreement for LDC Members. Under this decision, LDC Members are not required to apply the

provisions of the TRIPS Agreement, other than Articles 3, 4 and 5, until July 1, 2021, or until

such a date on which they cease to be a LDC Member, whichever date is earlier. Additionally,

the LDC Members have until 2016 to implement their TRIPS Agreement obligations for patent

and data protection for pharmaceutical products, as proposed by the United States at the Doha

Ministerial Conference of the WTO.


The United States participates actively in the WTO TRIPS Council’s scheduled reviews of WTO

Members’ implementation of the TRIPS Agreement and also uses the WTO’s Trade Policy

Review mechanism to pose questions and seek constructive engagement on issues related to

TRIPS Agreement implementation.


WTO Dispute Settlement


The United States continues to monitor the resolution of disputes announced in previous Special

301 reviews. The most efficient and preferred manner of resolving concerns is through bilateral

dialogue. Where these efforts are unsuccessful, the United States will not hesitate to use the

WTO dispute settlement procedures, as appropriate.


In April 2007, the United States initiated dispute settlement procedures relating to deficiencies in

China’s legal regime for protecting and enforcing copyrights and trademarks on a wide range of

products. In March 2009, the WTO Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) adopted a panel report that

upheld two of the claims advanced by the United States, finding that (1) China’s denial of

copyright protection to works that do not meet China’s content review standards is impermissible

under the TRIPS Agreement; and (2) China’s customs rules cannot allow seized counterfeit 28


goods to be publicly auctioned after only removing the infringing mark. With respect to a third

claim concerning China’s thresholds for criminal prosecution and conviction of counterfeiting

and piracy, while the United States prevailed on the interpretation of the important legal

standards in Article 61 of the TRIPS Agreement, including the finding that criminal enforcement

measures must reflect and respond to the realities of the commercial marketplace, the panel

found that it needed additional evidence before it could uphold the overall U.S. claim that

China’s criminal thresholds are too high. On March 19, 2010, China announced that it had

completed all the necessary domestic legislative procedures to implement the DSB

recommendations and rulings. The United States continues to monitor China’s implementation

of the DSB recommendations and rulings in this dispute.


In addition, the United States requested WTO dispute settlement consultations with China

concerning certain other Chinese measures affecting market access and distribution for imported

publications, movies, and music, and audio-visual home entertainment products (e.g., DVDs,

Blu-ray discs, etc.) (AVHE products). The U.S. claims challenged China’s prohibition on

foreign companies’ importation of all products at issue; China’s prohibitions and discriminatory

requirements imposed on foreign distributors of publications, music, and AVHE products within

China; and China’s imposition of more burdensome requirements on the distribution of imported

publications, movies, and music vis-à-vis their domestic counterparts. On January 19, 2010, the

DSB adopted panel and Appellate Body reports that found in favor of the United States on the

vast majority of its claims. China committed to bring all relevant measures into compliance with

the DSB recommendations by March 19, 2011, and subsequently revised or revoked several

measures relating to publications, AVHE products, and music. China did not issue any measures

relating to theatrical films, but instead proposed bilateral discussions. The United States and

China reached agreement in February 2012 on the terms of a Memorandum of Understanding

that provides significantly increased market access for imported films and significantly improved

compensation for foreign film producers. The United States continues to review and monitor the

steps that China has taken toward compliance in this matter.


Following the 1999 Special 301 review, the United States initiated dispute settlement

consultations concerning the EU regulation on food-related GIs, which appeared to discriminate

against foreign products and persons, notably by requiring that EU trading partners adopt an

“EU-style” system of GI protection, and appeared to provide insufficient protections to

trademark owners. On April 20, 2005, the DSB adopted a panel report finding in favor of the

United States that the EU GI regulation is inconsistent with the EU’s obligations under the

TRIPS Agreement and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994. On March 31, 2006,

the EU published a revised GI Regulation that is intended to comply with the DSB

recommendations and rulings. There remain some concerns, however, with respect to this

revised GI Regulation, which the United States has asked the EU to address, and the United

States intends to continue monitoring this situation. The United States is also working

intensively through bilateral and multilateral fora to advance U.S. market access interests, and to

ensure that the trade initiatives of other countries, including with respect to GIs, do not undercut

our market access.


Interagency Trade Enforcement Center


In his State of the Union address on January 24, 2012, President Obama announced the creation

of the Interagency Trade Enforcement Center (ITEC) to take a whole-of-government approach to 29


monitoring and enforcing Americans’ trade rights around the world. Thereafter, on February 28,

2012, the President issued an Executive Order that established ITEC. As the federal

government’s primary coordinator of international and domestic trade enforcement, ITEC helps

to ensure that America’s trading partners abide by their obligations, including by maintaining

open markets on a non-discriminatory basis, and by following rules-based procedures in a

transparent way. ITEC leverages and mobilizes the federal government’s resources and

expertise to address unfair foreign trade practices and barriers. In particular, ITEC uses expertise

from across the federal government to assist in asserting U.S. trade rights implicated by various

international trade agreements and serves as the primary forum within the federal government for

agencies to coordinate enforcement of obligations under international trade agreements,

including the identification of unfair trade practices and barriers that involve IPR.







Determination in Section 301 Investigation of Ukraine

Ukraine was designated a Priority Foreign Country in the 2013 Special Report due to the

particular IPR acts, policies, and practices identified in the 2013 Special 301 Report. (See 2013

Special 301 Report; Identification of Ukraine as a Priority Foreign Country and Initiation of

Section 301 Investigation, 78 FR 33886 (June 5, 2013)). Those acts, policies, and practices

involved: (1) the administration of Ukraine’s system for collecting societies, which are

responsible for collecting and distributing copyright royalties to U.S. and other rights holders; (2)

use of infringing software by Ukrainian government agencies; and (3) online infringement of

copyright and related rights. On May 30, 2013, the United States Trade Representative initiated

a Section 301 investigation of the acts, policies, and practices identified in the Special 301


Based on the information obtained during the investigation, on February 28, 2014, the U.S.

Trade Representative determined that these acts, policies, and practices are unreasonable and

burden or restrict United States commerce, but, due to the current political situation in Ukraine,

no action would be taken at that time. (See Notice of Determination in Section 301 Investigation

of Ukraine, 79 FR 14326 (March 13, 2014)).

USTR remains committed to addressing the problems that served as the basis for the designation

of Ukraine as a PFC, and appreciates Ukraine’s recent outreach and ongoing engagement in

exploring how to ameliorate these problems and improve its overall IP regime. The United

States looks forward to working with Ukraine on these three issues.






China remains on the Priority Watch List and subject to Section 306 monitoring.

China’s leadership has acknowledged the critical role that intellectual property plays in spurring

innovation and the need to improve China’s protection and enforcement of IP rights, including at

the Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. Consistent

with China’s policy objectives, its judicial, legislative, administrative, and enforcement

authorities are in the midst of wide-ranging legal reform efforts relating to the protection and

enforcement of IPR in China. Certain rights holders report positive experiences, including in

some cases a greater ability to obtain redress against infringers in civil court actions. The United

States also notes increased cooperation between U.S. and Chinese law enforcement agencies in

an effort to stem cross-border flows of infringing products. The United States looks forward to

strengthened cooperation, building on the increasing and positive cooperation between U.S.

customs and investigative agencies and their Chinese counterparts, including the General

Administration of Customs and Ministry of Public Security.

At the same time, a wide range of U.S. stakeholders in China continues to report serious

obstacles to effective protection of IPR in all forms, including patents, copyrights, trademarks, 31


trade secrets as well as protection against unfair commercial use or unauthorized disclosure of

test and other data generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical products. As a

result, sales of IPR-intensive goods and services in China remain disproportionately low when

compared to sales in similar, or even less developed, markets that provide a stronger

environment for IPR protection and market access. Despite laudable policy objectives and a

welcome ongoing reform effort, foreign rights holders in China continue to face a complex and

challenging IPR environment. Given the size of China’s consumer marketplace and its global

importance as a producer of a broad range of products, China’s protection and enforcement of

IPR will continue to be a focus of U.S. trade policy.

In particular, the theft of trade secrets remains a significant concern. Such thefts are occurring

not only inside but also outside China for the competitive advantage of Chinese state-owned and

private companies. Conditions are likely to deteriorate as long as those committing such thefts,

and those benefitting, continue to operate with relative impunity, often taking advantage of the

theft in order to enter into unfair competition or disadvantageous business relationships with

their victims. The United States strongly urges the Chinese government to take serious steps to

put an end to these activities and to deter further activity by rigorously investigating and

prosecuting trade secret thefts conducted by both cyber and conventional means.

Of longstanding concern are Chinese central, provincial, and local government measures and

actions that appear to require or pressure rights holders to transfer IPR from foreign to domestic

entities. Sometimes guided by government measures or policy statements intended to promote

indigenous innovation and the development of strategic industries, government authorities may

deny or delay market access or otherwise condition government procurement, permissions,

subsidies, tax treatment, and other actions on IPR being owned or developed in China, or

licensed to a Chinese entity. The U.S. Government is also concerned by the increased number of

stakeholders reporting that Chinese government entities are using regulatory pressure to compel

the licensing of important technologies or to dissuade stakeholders from pursuing available legal

avenues to enforce their IPR. China has made certain commitments to the United States on some

of these matters; the United States will continue pressing China to follow through on those


Legal Reform

The United States welcomes China’s ongoing legal reform efforts despite serious reservations

regarding certain measures. Since 2012, China has undertaken revisions to and invited comment

on draft revisions to its existing laws on patents, copyrights, trademarks, drug administration,

and scientific and technological achievements. Effective January 1, 2013, China’s amended

Civil Procedure Law includes provisions that may help U.S. rights holders to secure preliminary

measures and otherwise enforce their rights in civil court actions. Currently before China’s State

Council Legislative Affairs Office (SCLAO) are draft amendments to the Copyright Law and

Patent Law. In mid-2014, a revised Trademark Law and implementing regulations will go into

effect. Amendment of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law (AUCL), unrevised since first entering

into force in 1993, is proceeding at a slower pace. While applauding China’s consideration of

U.S. government and private sector perspectives and experiences as it amends its laws, the

United States notes the need to move forward expeditiously with remaining revisions to its IP-

related laws, and underscores the urgent need to update and amend the AUCL and related trade 32


secret laws, regulations, and judicial interpretations, including provisions regarding the

protection and enforcement of trade secrets.

China also invited comment on draft rules and guidelines on proposed regulations for the

remuneration of “service inventions” (i.e., inventions created by an employee as part of his or her

employment), rules for anti-monopoly enforcement in the field of intellectual property rights,

and patent examination guidelines for utility model and design patents. Several proposed

measures raise serious concerns, while others represent a marked improvement over prior drafts.

The United States applauds China’s openness to receiving comments and looks forward to

continuing engagement as future drafts are developed and evaluated, and as the drafts move

through the SCLAO and the National People’s Congress.

Additional legal reforms require action, including amending the Criminal Law and other relevant

measures to address continuing deficiencies in China’s criminal IPR enforcement.

National Leading Group

Following the completion of China’s 2010-11 Special IPR Campaign, the State Council

established a permanent office of the national leading group on combating IPR infringement

(Leading Group) to better coordinate and improve China’s efforts to combat IPR infringement

and the manufacture and sale of counterfeit and sub-standard goods. In 2013, the Leading Group

continued to coordinate enforcement actions and undertake special campaigns, including

concerning online markets and cross-border infringement cases. The United States encourages

China to continue to work with foreign governments and rights holders to share information and

demonstrate the constructive role the Leading Group can play to improve the protection and

enforcement of IPR.

Trade Secrets

As noted above, trade secret theft is a serious and growing problem in China. Thefts may arise in

a variety of circumstances, including those involving departing employees, failed joint ventures,

and cyber intrusion and hacking. In addition, thefts arising from the misuse of information

submitted to government entities for purposes of complying with regulatory obligations are

particularly troubling. The misappropriation of trade secrets and their use by a competing

enterprise can have a devastating impact on a company’s business, making recourse to adequate

and effective legal remedies particularly important.

Under Chinese law, however, available remedies are difficult to obtain, given that civil,

administrative, and criminal enforcement against trade secrets theft remains severely constrained.

Enforcement obstacles include various deficiencies in China’s AUCL; constraints on gathering

evidence for use in litigation; difficulties in meeting the criteria for establishing that information

constitutes a trade secret; and criminal penalties that do not provide adequate deterrents. Unlike

other Chinese IP laws, the AUCL does not expressly authorize judges to issue certain provisional

orders that are often critical to the successful pursuit of a civil enforcement action. While China’s

new Civil Procedure Law may address, or partially address, that problem, there has been

insufficient time to ascertain whether this new law is facilitating access to civil remedies in

practice. Additionally, the AUCL appears to apply primarily to “commercial undertakings” and

not to impose liability on individual actors; the AUCL also requires that a trade secret have

“practical applicability,” which may limit the scope of protection for early stage research. 33


There are other important weaknesses in China’s civil enforcement system that relate to

mechanisms for gathering evidence; procedures for obtaining preliminary injunctions; and the

relative weight afforded certain kinds of evidence, as reflected in the overreliance on original

documentary evidence over oral testimony. Without changes to address these weaknesses, some

of which are not specific to intellectual property but relate to China’s civil process generally,

effective enforcement against misappropriation of trade secrets in China will remain challenging.

The United States is encouraged by China’s December 2013 Joint Commission on Commerce

and Trade (JCCT) commitment to undertake an Action Program that will include concrete

actions to address enforcement, enhance public awareness, and require strict legal compliance

with respect to trade secrets. The United States will continue to engage with China as it develops

this Action Program, and as it advances legal and regulatory reforms to better protect trade


Copyright and Piracy

Software legalization

The United States will continue to urge that all levels of the Chinese government, as well as

state-owned enterprises (SOEs), use only legitimate, licensed copies of software. In May 2011,

China’s government reported that software legalization in central government offices was

complete. At the provincial level, China’s government reported that a similar effort was

completed as of June 30, 2012. In January, 2014, the Chinese government reported that all local

government agencies at the city and county level had completed software legalization by the end

of 2013. However, even with the significant work to legalize this number and range of

government agencies, U.S. software companies have seen only a modest increase in sales to

government agencies, and specific information about the procedures and tools used to ascertain

budget or audit information remains unavailable.

Software legalization efforts more recently have extended to China’s SOE sector. Losses by

software companies due to piracy at SOEs and other enterprises remain very high. To the degree

that Chinese firms do not pay for the software that runs many of their operations, they reap a cost

advantage relative to competitors who pay for legally acquired software. The United States

remains committed to working with China to continue to address these challenges.

Online piracy

Despite bilateral commitments to increase IPR enforcement, online piracy in China persists on a

large scale. As of 2013, China had the largest Internet user base in the world, estimated at over

600 million users, including nearly 500 million mobile web users. Despite national campaigns

and the leadership of the Leading Group, widespread piracy affects industries involved in the

distribution of legitimate music, motion pictures, books and journals, video games, and software.

For example, industry reports that in 2013 the revenues from digital music sales in China were

$65.4 million, compared to $108.3 million in South Korea, and $32.0 million in Thailand – a

country with less than five percent of China’s population and a roughly equivalent per capita

GDP. Similarly, over 90 percent of the revenue generated by U.S. films in China comes in the

form of box office revenues, compared to 25-30 percent in the United States. This difference is

partly due to widespread piracy of motion pictures over the Internet and on optical discs. Online

piracy extends to scientific, technical, and medical publications as well. 34


Parties in China are also facilitating online infringement, in China and third countries, through

media box piracy. Manufactured in China and exported abroad, media boxes can be preloaded

with infringing content and plugged directly into televisions. They enable the user to stream and

download infringing online audio and visual content. The vast majority of the infringing websites

to which media box users connect are reportedly located in China. The United States urges China

to continue efforts to improve IPR protection and enforcement in this area.

Counterfeit Goods

Despite increased enforcement efforts, problems with counterfeiting in China remain

widespread. A partial list of commonly counterfeited goods includes food and beverages;

apparel, footwear, and accessories; consumer electronics, computers and networking equipment;

entertainment and business software; batteries; chemicals; appliances; pharmaceuticals; and auto

parts. Impacts are not limited to lost sales volumes and damage to the reputation of the trademark

owner. For example, higher defect and failure rates among counterfeit semiconductors may cause

malfunctions in the equipment in which they are incorporated, which may include medical

devices, vehicle safety and braking systems, and other critical applications. As one measure of

the scale of the problem, products from China (including Hong Kong) accounted for 93 percent

of the value of the IPR infringing products seized by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in

fiscal year 2013.

Although rights holders report increased enforcement activities, mostly but not exclusively on

behalf of local brands, enforcement efforts have yet to slow the sale of counterfeit products

online. This is particularly concerning in light of the rapid growth of e-commerce both within

China and between China and overseas markets. Rights holders report that local Administrations

for Industry and Commerce (AICs) typically confine their efforts to physical markets. While

both the State Administration for Industry and Commerce and local AICs have called on online

trading websites to improve procedures to address online sales of counterfeit merchandise, these

measures have not significantly deterred repeat and large-scale offenders who, after postings are

removed, quickly place new postings offering the same infringing goods. It is reported that the

Supreme People’s Court may issue a judicial interpretation to address these concerns.

IPR and Technology Transfer Requirements

The United States is concerned about Chinese measures, policies and practices at the national,

provincial, and local levels that allegedly are intended to hasten China’s development into an

innovative economy, but that may disadvantage foreign rights holders. Industry reports that

many of China’s innovation-related policies and other industrial policies, such as strategic

emerging industry policies, may have a negative impact on U.S. exports or U.S. investors and

their investments or IP rights. Such Chinese measures frequently call for technology transfer

and, in certain cases, appear to include criteria that could require IP rights to be developed in

China, or to be owned by or licensed to a Chinese party. Such government-imposed conditions

or incentives may distort licensing and other private business arrangements, resulting in

commercial outcomes that are not optimal for the firms involved or for promoting innovation.

Such government intervention in the commercial decisions that enterprises make regarding the

ownership, development, registration, or licensing of IP is not consistent with international

practice, and may raise concerns relative to China’s implementation of its WTO commitments. 35


Sustained U.S.-China engagement through the JCCT, the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic

Dialogue (S&ED), and high-level government engagement has resulted in important Chinese

commitments, including “that technology transfer and technological cooperation shall be decided

by businesses independently and will not be used by the Chinese government as a pre-condition

for market access,” and that China will “treat and protect intellectual property rights (IPR)

owned or developed in other countries the same as domestically owned or developed IPR.” In

addition, at the 2012 JCCT, China “reaffirmed that technology transfer and technology

cooperation are the autonomous decisions of enterprises” and pledged further that “[i]f

departmental or local documents contain language inconsistent with the above commitment,

China will correct them in a timely manner.” At the 2013 JCCT, China committed not to

implement rules or finalize a draft catalogue containing indigenous innovation criteria for the

procurement of vehicles for official use that are inconsistent with China’s 2012 JCCT

commitment. The United States looks forward to China’s full implementation of its

commitments, and the revision of other measures, including elements of the High and New

Technology Enterprise tax incentive, including requirements that beneficiaries license core IP

exclusively to a party in China and make 60 percent of their global research and development

expenditures in China.

Patent-Related and Other Policies

IPR and technological standards

The growing importance of IPR and technological standards in China heightens U.S. concerns

with a range of Chinese government policies and practices. Whereas open, voluntary, and

consensus-based standards best promote economic development, efficiency and innovation,

standards development bodies in China often employ opaque and exclusionary practices to the

detriment of U.S. and other foreign parties. China’s standards setting bodies reportedly often

deny membership or participation rights to foreign parties, effectively shutting them out of the

process. In some cases, such bodies may condition a firm’s ability to participate on it acting

through a joint venture in which it can only have a minority ownership stake, the licensing of a

firm’s IP on concessional terms, or a firm’s transfer of technology. Based on a limited number

of investigations conducted to date, there is also growing concern that Chinese competition

authorities may target for investigation foreign firms that hold IPR that may be essential to the

implementation of certain technological standards. Industry reports of intimidating and non-

transparent investigative conduct contribute to these concerns. In the related realm of national

standards, the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) and the State Intellectual Property

Organization (SIPO) published Regulatory Measures on National Standards Involving Patents

(Interim) that went into effect on January 1, 2014. The final version of the provisional measures

addressed a number of U.S. government and industry concerns with earlier drafts. However,

uncertainty remains as to how the measures apply to patent holders who are not participants in

the particular standards development process to which the measures apply. In particular, with

respect to patents relevant to a particular standard under development, such measures include a

provision that encourages non-participant holders of such patents to disclose the patents and

provisions regarding requests for licensing declarations from holders of such patents. The

United States is concerned by any suggestion that standards-related disclosure and licensing

obligations extend to patent holders electing not to participate in standards development. 36


IPR protection for pharmaceutical products

The United States has engaged intensively with China to address troubling obstacles to obtaining

and maintaining patents on pharmaceutical innovations. Although SIPO guidelines governing

the review of patent applications were once generally consistent with those of the United States

and leading patent offices in other countries, China’s revised interpretation severely restricted a

patent applicant’s ability to provide supplemental information in support of an application. As a

result, China has denied pharmaceutical patent applications and invalidated existing patents,

even with respect to applications and patents consistently awarded by U.S. and other patent

offices. This problem was the subject of great attention during Vice President Biden’s visit to

Beijing in November 2013 and the annual meeting of the JCCT the following month. These

engagements resulted in China’s revision of the policy on information supplementation, and a

commitment to work with the United States to follow up on implementation, including the

examination of individual cases.

In addition, the United States continues to have concerns about the extent to which China

provides effective protection against unfair commercial use, as well as unauthorized disclosure

of undisclosed test or other data generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical

products. Under Chinese law and international commitments, China is required to ensure that no

subsequent applicant may rely on the undisclosed test or other data submitted in support of an

application for marketing approval of new pharmaceutical products for a period of at least six

years from the date of marketing approval in China. However, there are reports that generic

manufacturers have been granted marketing approvals by the China Food and Drug

Administration (CFDA) prior to the expiration of this period, and in some cases, even before the

originator’s product has been approved. The United States was encouraged by China’s 2012

JCCT commitment to define “new chemical entity,” a term that is central to the marketing

approval process, in a manner consistent with international practice. Given that more than a year

has passed since that time, the United States is urging China to implement its commitment

without delay.

On November 12, 2013, CFDA invited comment on draft amendments to the Drug Registration

Rules (DRR). The United States and industry expressed concern that the proposed deletion of

Article 19 from the DRR would weaken regulatory pharmaceutical patent enforcement. CFDA

subsequently issued a revised draft that retained Article 19, albeit in modified form. The United

States will continue to engage with China on this and other issues.

Utility model and design patents

For years, the U.S. Government and U.S. rights holders have expressed concerns about the

quality of China’s utility model and design patents, which SIPO grants without substantive

examination and which China encourages through subsidies and other incentives. The poor

quality of many of these patents has led to abusive litigation, and burdens on legitimate

businesses seeking to make patentability or freedom to operate determinations. After receiving

comments on a prior draft, amendments to SIPO’s patent examination guidelines for utility

model and design patents came into force on October 15, 2013. Although the new guidelines do

not require substantive examination, they permit examiners to gather additional information in

certain cases at their discretion. The impact of the recent change is still difficult to assess, but

the amendments appears to be a welcome initial step. 37


On May 1, 2014, new SIPO examination guidelines take effect allowing the grant of design

patents on graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This welcome step comes after sustained U.S.

engagement, although the impact of certain provisions in the guidelines pose the potential to

undermine at least some of the apparent gains.

The United States looks forward to continuing to work with China to resolve these and other





India remains on the Priority Watch List in 2014. In making this determination, the United

States recognizes not only the concerns listed below, but also the critical role that meaningful,

constructive, and effective engagement between India and the United States should play in

resolving these concerns. Serious difficulties in attaining constructive engagement on issues of

concern to U.S. and other stakeholders have contributed to India’s challenging environment for

IPR protection and enforcement. In the coming months, the United States will redouble its

efforts to seek opportunities for meaningful, sustained, and effective engagement on IP-related

matters with the new government, including at senior levels and through technical exchanges,

that will both improve IP protection and enforcement in India, and support India’s efforts to

achieve a “Decade of Innovation” and advance its legitimate public policy goals. These

opportunities include strengthening IP-related discussions between U.S. and Indian government

officials; facilitating regular exchanges among IP-intensive industries and both governments;

initiating cooperative efforts to combat piracy; and working with the Government of India to

encourage the private sector to establish an IP-related task force under the U.S.-India CEO

Forum. To further encourage progress on IPR issues of concern, USTR will publish a Federal

Register notice and initiate an Out-of-Cycle Review (OCR) of India in the fall of

2014, commencing an assessment of the progress in that engagement.

In 2013, India made some limited progress in improving its weak IPR legal framework and

enforcement system. India acceded to and implemented the Madrid Protocol; continued progress

toward digitization of cable networks to help efforts to combat signal theft by cable operators;

and enacted rules to implement amendments to its Copyright Act. 2013 also saw more active

copyright enforcement by the Delhi High Court through the issuance of Ashok Kumar and Anton

Piller orders, which provide injunctive relief to rights holders.

In many areas, however, IP protection and enforcement challenges are growing, and there are

serious questions regarding the future of the innovation climate in India across multiple sectors

and disciplines. In fact, many of the submissions made by a wide array of stakeholders in this

year’s Special 301 reporting process underscored increasing challenges rights holders face in

India, and a number of those submissions sought the strongest censure of India’s IP environment

available under Special 301. The United States urges India to take specific actions to address the

concerns raised, including by means of constructive bilateral engagement. The United States

also urges India to reconsider how to meet its legitimate domestic policy objectives while

fostering a climate for innovation. The United States continues to encourage India to strengthen

civil IPR enforcement by increasing judicial efficiency and reducing court backlogs through

electronic case management, fast-track procedures, specialized judges, and similar reform

measures. In addition, the United States supports India’s efforts to initiate criminal

investigations and launch raids at counterfeit goods markets; combat the manufacture, sale and 38


distribution of counterfeit medicines; initiate investigations and judicial actions against Internet

piracy; and seek deterrent sentences against persons or entities engaging in copyright piracy and

trademark counterfeiting.

Copyright and Piracy

India boasts a vibrant domestic creative industry, but it faces a range of challenges, including

growing piracy, particularly over the Internet, that should be addressed through appropriate legal

and enforcement reforms. The United States continues to seek additional changes to the

amended Copyright Act and related rules that went into effect in 2013. These changes would

help resolve questions regarding the scope of exclusive rights under Indian law and the ability of

rights holders to exercise those rights. They would also help ensure that content-based industries

can effectively combat physical and online piracy and develop new models for the delivery of

content, particularly in the digital environment. The United States encourages India, as part of

its copyright and enforcement reforms, to enact anti-camcording legislation; to model its

statutory license provisions relating to copyrighted works upon Berne Convention standards; to

ensure that collecting societies are licensed promptly and able to operate effectively; and to

provide additional protections against signal theft, circumvention of technological protection

measures, and online copyright piracy.

The United States is particularly concerned over online piracy in India given the size and growth

of India’s market. According to a report by McKinsey & Company, as of December 2012,

India’s Internet user base was the third largest in the world, with 120 million users, and by 2015,

India will have the world’s second largest user base, estimated at 330-370 million Internet users.

This trend makes it all the more imperative that India incorporate into its legal system more

effective measures to counter online piracy, including appropriate notice-and-takedown

procedures and other efficient mechanisms for rights holders to seek removal of infringing

content from websites, consistent with international best practices.

The high incidence of camcording in India underscores the importance of developing an

effective legal framework to address this problem. India has one of the highest rates of video

piracy in the world, according to the Motion Pictures Distributors Association of India (MPDA).

Moreover, according to the Motion Picture Association (MPA), camcording incidents involving

motion pictures produced by MPA member studios alone have risen rapidly over the past few

years, with 155 forensic matches traced to India from 2009 to 2011. In 2013 alone, there were

reportedly 43 such forensic matches, accounting for approximately half of all such incidents in

the Asia-Pacific in that year. These incidents do not take into account camcording of films

produced by non-MPA members, including many films produced in India and elsewhere in the

world. The United States welcomes statements made by the Ministry of Information and

Broadcasting that it plans to include specific anti-camcording provisions in the draft

Cinematographic Bill, and the support of the government of Andhra Pradesh that helped launch

in 2013 the India Movie Cop app developed by that state’s film industry.

The United States notes limited improvements with respect to copyright enforcement, including

reports that enforcement officials cooperate with music industry rights holders in conducting

complaint-based raids, and increased use of judicial orders that have strengthened enforcement

against pirated movies and music online. The United States encourages India to take additional

steps to improve coordination with enforcement officials of state governments within India. 39


To strengthen engagement on these and other copyright issues, and to build upon the strengths of

the vibrant Indian and U.S. copyright-intensive industries, including in movies, music, and

software, the United States would welcome closer bilateral cooperation with India in addressing

the challenges of copyright piracy of U.S. and Indian content globally, including, for example,

cooperation and exchanges at the technical level between copyright protection and enforcement

experts in each government.

Patents & Regulatory Data Protection

The United States continues to encourage India to promote a stable and predictable patent system

that nurtures and incentivizes innovation. As leading economies with a strong tradition of

innovation, India and the United States can and should ensure supportive environments for

innovators to achieve success and make significant contributions to economic growth in both


The United States commends India on actions taken in recent years to improve the operations of

its Patent Office, including digitizing records, upgrading online search and e-filing capabilities,

and hiring additional patent examiners. The United States urges India to continue its recent

efforts to address its patent application backlog. The United States welcomes recent statements

from India’s Controller-General of Patents regarding plans to hire 500 patent examiners in the

next five years, as well as a Delhi High Court decision ordering a committee of senior officials to

develop a plan of action to address the backlog and ensure that future applications are processed

within the statutory deadline. The United States encourages greater technical collaboration

between patent authorities in both countries that would facilitate the more timely examination of

patent applications.

Recent actions by the Government of India with respect to patents, however, have raised serious

concerns about the innovation climate in India and risk hindering India’s progress towards an

innovation-focused economy. In the pharmaceutical sector and increasingly in other sectors,

such as the agro-chemicals and green technology sectors, some innovators face serious

challenges in securing and enforcing patents in India. In recognition of the fact that an

environment conducive to the protection and enforcement of IP can help to address pressing

domestic policy challenges, the United States encourages India to adopt policies that support

both cutting-edge innovation to address important health challenges and a robust generic market.

For example, a patent system should encourage the development of inventions that meet the

well-established international criteria of being new, involving an inventive step, and being

capable of industrial application, including as provided for in the TRIPS Agreement. Under

India’s Patents Act, a patent is available for an “invention,” defined in Section 2(j) of the Act as

a product or process that is novel, has an inventive step, and is capable of industrial application.

Section 3(d) of India’s Patent Act states in relevant part that “the mere discovery of a new form

of a known substance which does not result in the enhancement of the known efficacy of that

substance” is not considered to be an “invention” under Indian law.1 As the Indian Supreme



1 Section 3(d) contains a further Explanation stating that “[f]or the purposes of this clause [3(d)],

salts, esthers, ethers, polymorphs, metabolites, pure form, particle size, isomers, mixtures of

isomers, complexes, combinations and other derivatives of known substance shall be considered

to be the same substance, unless they differ significantly in properties with regard to efficacy.” 40


Court recently explained, in the case of patent applications for pharmaceuticals and other


The amended portion of section 3(d) clearly sets up a second tier of qualifying

standards for chemical substances/pharmaceutical products in order to leave the

door open for true and genuine inventions …. [The]n reading [section 2] with

section 3(d) it would appear that the Act sets different standards for qualifying as

‘inventions’ things belonging to different classes, and for medicines and drugs

and other chemical substances, the Act sets the invention threshold higher, by

virtue of [section 3(d)]. … [I]n case of chemicals and especially pharmaceuticals

if the product for which patent protection is claimed is a new form of a known

substance with known efficacy, then the subject product must pass, in addition to

clauses (j) and (and) of section 2(1), the test of enhanced efficacy as provided in

section 3(d) read with its explanation.2


The United States is concerned that section 3(d), as interpreted, may have the effect of limiting

the patentability of potentially beneficial innovations. Such innovations would include drugs

with fewer side effects, decreased toxicity, improved delivery systems, or temperature or storage

stability. In practice, this standard has already been applied to deny patent protections to

potentially beneficial innovations, some of which enjoy patent protection in multiple other


Even after a product receives a patent, Indian law continues to pose challenges to the enjoyment

of that IPR protection.

First, the United States supports patent systems that incorporate efficient patent procedures and

foster high-quality patents, and, in that connection, urges India to improve and streamline its

patent opposition procedures. Specifically, under India’s patent regime, the same interested

person may, at minimal cost, challenge a patent through both pre-grant and post-grant opposition

proceedings on any of eleven enumerated grounds, including by citing the same grounds in both

pre- and post-grant challenges. As a result, applications can be tied up in costly challenge

proceedings for years, all the while running the potential term of the patent which begins from

the application filing date, thus impeding an applicant’s ability to make investments and conduct


Second, while bearing in mind the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health, discussed in

the Intellectual Property and Health Policy section of this Report, the United States also

continues to monitor developments concerning compulsory licensing of patents in India. The

United States urges India to provide greater transparency about its ongoing inter-ministerial

process that is considering over a dozen patented medicines as candidates for government-

initiated compulsory licenses, and urges India to allow opportunities for input by rights holders,

as appropriate, with respect to decisions concerning compulsory licenses.


In addition, the United States continues to be concerned with the rationale underlying a decision

by India’s Controller-General of Patents to grant a compulsory license under Section 84 of

India’s Patents Act (which allows private parties to initiate proceedings seeking a compulsory


2 Novartis AG v. Union of India & Others, Civ. App. Us. 2706-2716 (Supreme Court, April 1,

2013), paragraphs 103, 104, and 192 (emphasis added). 41


license of a patented article), as upheld by a recent judgment of the IPAB. The grant of the

compulsory license was based, in part, on the innovator’s failure to “work” the patent in India

because it imported its products, rather than manufacturing them in India. The United States

recognizes that, on appeal, the IPAB modified the Controller-General’s reasoning to clarify that

“in some cases” the “working” requirement could be met solely by importation. The IPAB,

however, rejected the innovator’s explanation that economic factors prevented manufacturing in

India, stating, “the patentee must show why it could not be locally manufactured. A mere

statement to that effect is not sufficient[,] there must be evidence.”3 The IPAB did not clarify the

circumstances under which the “working” requirement would be met without manufacturing in

India. The decision could inappropriately pressure innovators outside of India – including those

in sectors well beyond pharmaceuticals, such as green technology and information and

communications technology – to manufacture in India in order to avoid being compelled to

license an invention to third parties. The IPAB’s decision is currently on appeal to the Bombay

High Court.

Although the government has issued only one compulsory license under Section 84, India has

made clear that it views compulsory licensing as an important tool of industrial policy for green

technologies, with the potential to be applied more regularly across economic sectors.

Specifically, India has promoted compulsory licensing in its National Manufacturing Policy as a

mechanism available for government entities to effectuate technology transfer in the clean

energy sector. India similarly has sought to multilateralize this approach in ongoing negotiations

under the UNFCCC. In those negotiations India continues to identify patents as obstacles to the

dissemination of climate change technologies, pressing for outcomes that would potentially

undermine incentives for innovation, such as existing global standards for patent protection that

is a critical part of the response to climate change and other environmental challenges.

The United States also notes with concern the continuing challenges involved with enforcement

of patent rights in India, including challenges that patent holders face in securing injunctions

against firms that manufacture patented inventions without authorization from the patent holder.

Additionally, when approving such manufacture without authorization, Indian state

governmental authorities reportedly do not have a mechanism to confirm whether the item to be

manufactured is under patent. Recent cases such as Merck v. Glenmark and Cipla v. Roche

illustrate this problem and underscore the need for greater regulatory coordination between

officials in state and central governments.

Finally, the United States also urges India to provide an effective system for protecting against

unfair commercial use, as well as unauthorized disclosure, of undisclosed test or other data

generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products,

and to ensure that such a system applies to all pharmaceutical products and not just traditional

Indian medicines. It is noteworthy, however, that the Pesticides Management Bill, currently

before Parliament, includes provisions for data protection of agricultural chemicals for five

years, although that time period begins with the product’s first marketing approval anywhere in

the world. Meanwhile, data protection for pharmaceuticals remains under consideration by the

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Without these types of protections in place against the

unfair commercial use of clinical test data, companies in India reportedly are able to copy certain




3 Decision of the Intellectual Property Appellate Board, Chennai, March 4, 2013, OA/35/2012/PT/MUM, Paragraph 52 42


pharmaceutical products and seek immediate government approval for marketing based on the

original developer’s data.

Trademarks and Counterfeiting

The United States continues to observe significant delays associated with cancellation and

opposition proceedings at the administrative level of the Trademark Registry, which are

exacerbated by delays in India’s judicial processes. While opposition and cancellation

proceedings are complex matters that require careful consideration, the reported backlog of more

than 160,000 cases represents a significant challenge for companies trying to invest and build

brands in India. These delays undermine enforcement mechanisms and their ability to

discourage infringing conduct. The United States urges India to take steps to expedite

proceedings before the Trademark Registry.

Additionally, the production, sale, distribution, import, and export of counterfeit goods in India

remains very troubling. In a study published in September 2013 by the International Chamber of

Commerce and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry analyzing seven

key industry sectors vulnerable to counterfeiting and smuggling (automotive parts, alcohol,

computer hardware, personal goods, packaged foods, mobile phones, and tobacco products),

researchers concluded that unauthorized counterfeiting and smuggling caused average sales

losses to right holders of 21.7 percent or approximately $11.9 billion in 2012. Collectively, the

Indian government’s economic loss tied to these illicit activities totaled approximately $4.26

billion, according to the study. This problem is particularly troubling with respect to the

production and distribution of counterfeit pharmaceuticals. While India is one of the world’s

largest producers of legitimate, high-quality generic pharmaceuticals, and the United States is

India’s largest single export market for generic pharmaceuticals, India is also the top supplier of

counterfeit pharmaceuticals to the United States, according to U.S. Customs and Border

Protection data and analysis.

Trade Secrets

The United States is increasingly concerned about trade secret protection in India, particularly

the reported difficulty in obtaining remedies and damages. India appears to rely primarily upon

the law of contract to provide trade secret protection. Although India’s contract-based approach

may address the theft of trade secrets where a contract has been breached, India’s approach may

be less effective in covering situations in which there is no contractual relationship, such as in

cases of theft by a business competitor. Although Indian law does provide for some remedies,

including injunctive relief, in practice, damages can be very difficult to obtain. Finally, because

India’s court system reportedly lacks sufficient procedural safeguards to protect trade secrets or

other confidential information divulged through discovery in civil or criminal litigation, there is a

risk that such information may be disclosed publicly in the course of judicial proceedings.

Localization Trends

The United States commends India’s recognition of the importance of innovation in connection

with its efforts to promote manufacturing, but urges India to resist imposing discriminatory or

other trade-restrictive measures in pursuit of that objective at the expense of adequate and

effective protection of IPR. The United States welcomes India’s decision to revise the

Preferential Market Access (PMA) policy, which previously contained elements that appeared to 43


treat India-owned IP more favorably than foreign-owned IP. The United States remains

concerned, however, about actions and policies in India that appear to favor local manufacturing

or Indian IP owners in a manner that distorts the competitive landscape needed to ensure the

development of globally successful and innovative industries. For example, last year’s Drug

Price Control Order (DPCO) imposes pricing restrictions on the sale of 348 medicines, but

provides exemptions from those restrictions—that is, allows them to be priced at higher levels—

for certain medicines that are manufactured in India and “developed using indigenous Research

and Development.” In addition, as noted above, the IPAB’s interpretation of Section 84 of

India’s Patents Act suggests that a patent could be subject to a compulsory license if it is not

manufactured in India.

The United States looks forward to continuing to work with India to address these and other





Russia remains on the Priority Watch List in 2014 as a result of continued, significant challenges

to IPR protection and enforcement. Russia passed amendments to its Civil Code that

substantially weakened protections for industrial designs and introduced confusion into the

available scope of copyright exceptions and limitations.

The United States is troubled that IPR enforcement continued to decrease overall in 2013,

following a dramatic decline in 2012, and remained plagued by a lack of transparency and

effectiveness. Stakeholders express concern about the manufacture, transshipment and retail

availability of counterfeit goods, including counterfeits of agricultural chemicals, electronics,

information technology, auto parts, consumer goods, machinery, and other products.

Enforcement actions combatting end user piracy have sharply declined, including a decrease in

raids, initiations of criminal cases, and issuances of court verdicts.

The United States urges Russia to develop an appropriately strong, more transparent, and more

effective legal framework and enforcement strategy to reduce the sale of counterfeit goods online

and piracy of copyright-protected content. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals are reportedly

manufactured in Russia and made available through online pharmacies. The United States notes

that Russian courts issued the first two criminal convictions for online piracy this year. Both

resulted in suspended sentences, and one also included a fine. It is reported that both cases

required investigations of multiple years and that there is little interest in future prosecutions of

this type by law enforcement officials. Russia remains home to many sites facilitating online

piracy, which damage both the legitimate content market in Russia as well as third-country


Russia has not issued regulations clarifying the protection against the unfair commercial use, as

well as unauthorized disclosure, of test and other data generated to obtain marketing approval for

pharmaceutical products. Russia has also not enacted a formal review and improvement of its

collecting society system, which is nontransparent and burdensome. The United States will

continue to monitor Russia’s progress on these and other matters. 44





Algeria remains on the Priority Watch List in 2014. The United States welcomes Algeria’s

intensive work on intellectual property awareness, its accession to the WIPO Internet Treaties,

and improved coordination of enforcement agencies and looks forward to seeing tangible results

from this work. However, Algeria’s ban on a number of imported pharmaceutical products and

medical devices in favor of local products is a trade matter of paramount concern, and is the

reason Algeria remains on the Priority Watch List. The United States looks forward to

continuing its engagement with Algeria, including in the context of Algeria’s efforts to accede to

the WTO, and urges Algeria to remove this market access barrier.




Argentina remains on the Priority Watch List in 2014, a position it has occupied since 1996.

Argentina has made little progress in improving protection and enforcement of intellectual

property rights over the past year. Significant concerns remain with respect to the high levels of

piracy and counterfeiting, including in the digital environment, and the lack of political will to

address the situation, although Argentina’s customs and tax authority (AFIP) has conducted

some enforcement operations. A prime example of the absence of even basic enforcement of IP

laws is the continued growth and expansion of the Notorious Market La Salada, and its owners’

ability to continue operating with impunity. Delays in the acquisition of IP rights, and a lack of

transparency for patentability criteria, also raise concerns. Argentina’s patent application backlog

is growing, a problem that could be alleviated by Argentina’s accession to the Patent

Cooperation Treaty (PCT), if the political will to do so existed. Argentina also fails to provide

effective protection against unfair commercial use or unauthorized disclosure of test and other

data generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical products. The United States

looks forward to continuing to work with Argentina to address these and other issues.




Chile remains on the Priority Watch List in 2014. The United States continues to have serious

concerns regarding outstanding IPR issues under the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement.

The United States continues to urge Chile to implement an effective system for addressing patent

issues expeditiously in connection with applications to market pharmaceutical products. The

United States also continues to urge Chile to implement both protections against the unlawful

circumvention of technological protection measures and protections for encrypted program-

carrying satellite signals. Chile must also ensure that effective administrative and judicial

procedures, as well as deterrent remedies, are made available to rights holders and satellite and

cable service providers, including measures to address ongoing concerns with decoder boxes.

The United States also urges Chile to provide adequate protection against unfair commercial use,

as well as unauthorized disclosure, of undisclosed test or other data generated to obtain

marketing approval for pharmaceutical products. Finally, the United States urges Chile to amend

its Internet service provider (ISP) liability regime to permit effective action against piracy over

the Internet and to also take steps to improve the protection of plant varieties. The United States 45


looks forward to continuing to work with Chile to resolve these and other issues, including

through the TPP negotiations.




Indonesia remains on the Priority Watch List in 2014. Indonesian authorities have continued

educational outreach to the public to advance IPR awareness and have engaged with the United

States through the IPR Working Group under the United States-Indonesia Trade and Investment

Framework Agreement to develop an action plan to improve IPR protection and enforcement to

address high levels of IPR infringement in Indonesia. The United States welcomes reports of

enforcement raids conducted against counterfeit and pirated goods, as well as a reported increase

in actions against counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical products. However, the United

States remains concerned about gaps in Indonesia’s laws relating to the protection and

enforcement of IPR, and urges Indonesia to address these issues. The United States is also

concerned that Indonesia’s IPR enforcement efforts, despite the raids mentioned above, have not

been effective in addressing rampant piracy and counterfeiting, reflected in growing piracy over

the Internet and widely available counterfeit pharmaceutical products. The United States urges

Indonesia to take steps to address inefficiencies in its judicial and prosecutorial systems which

include a lack of transparency and deterrent-level sentences. In regard to cable piracy, Indonesia

has conducted outreach to raise public awareness about unauthorized distribution of cable signals

and Indonesia’s continuing licensing process. However, these efforts have had little or no impact

to date on widespread cable piracy. The United States continues to encourage Indonesia to

provide an effective system for protecting against the unfair commercial use, as well as

unauthorized disclosure, of undisclosed test or other data generated to obtain marketing approval

for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products. The United States also remains

concerned about market access barriers in Indonesia, including measures that appear to condition

permissions to import medicines on at least partial local manufacturing or technology transfer

requirements. Other measures that could restrict market access relate to the importation of

motion pictures. The United States remains concerned by Indonesian government statements

indicating that Indonesia failed to abide by Indonesian legal procedures in issuing a compulsory

license decree in 2012, and indicating that Indonesian patent law does not require individual

merits review in connection with the grant of compulsory licenses. The United States further

encourages Indonesia to provide for judicial or other independent review of any compulsory

license authorizations. The United States looks forward to working with Indonesia on these and

other matters.




Pakistan remains on the Priority Watch List in 2014. Although Pakistan has continued its efforts

to advance IPR enforcement, including through raids, seizures, and arrests by various

enforcement authorities, there have not been significant improvements in its overall IPR

protection. Pakistan has not yet fully implemented the Intellectual Property Organization of

Pakistan Act of 2012 (IPO Act). Notably, Pakistan has yet to establish the specialized IP

tribunals and an operational IPO Policy Board provided for under the IPO Act. Widespread 46


counterfeiting and piracy, particularly book and optical disc piracy, continue to present serious

concerns for U.S. industry. Pakistan should ensure that its enforcement officials can exercise ex

officio authority without the need for a formal complaint by a rights holder, and should provide

for deterrent-level penalties for criminal IPR infringement. Pakistan should also take the

necessary steps to reform its copyright law to address the piracy challenges of the digital age.

The United States continues to encourage Pakistan to provide an effective system for protecting

against unfair commercial use, as well as unauthorized disclosure, of tests and other data

generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical products. The United States

appreciates Pakistan’s interest in improving its IPR environment and looks forward to working

with Pakistan to address these and other issues, including in connection with Pakistan’s

implementation of the IPO Act.




Thailand remains on the Priority Watch List in 2014. The United States remains encouraged by

Thailand’s stated commitment to improving IPR protection and enforcement, and is hopeful that

the National IPR Center of Enforcement, launched in March 2013, will help to improve

coordination and allow for more effective enforcement actions among Thai enforcement

agencies. The United States urges Thailand to complete many of the legislative initiatives begun

in past years, including: legislation to address landlord liability and unauthorized camcording of

motion pictures in theaters; to provide Thai Customs with ex officio authority; to fully implement

the provisions of the WIPO Internet Treaties; to restructure the Trade Secret Committee and

modify penalty provisions under the Trade Secrets Act; to accelerate patent examination and

registration procedures and address issues such as partial designs; and to establish improved

legal mechanisms to address the rapidly growing problem of copyright piracy and trademark

counterfeiting on the Internet. The United States also urges Thailand to take enforcement action

against widespread piracy and counterfeiting in the country; to impose deterrent-level sentences;

and to address effectively its longstanding problem of piracy of cable and satellite signals. The

United States continues to encourage Thailand to provide an effective system for protecting

against the unfair commercial use, as well as unauthorized disclosure, of test or other data

generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products.

The United States urges Thailand to engage in a meaningful and transparent manner with all

relevant stakeholders, including IPR owners, as it considers ways to address Thailand’s public

health challenges, while maintaining a patent system that promotes innovation. The United

States looks forward to continuing to work with Thailand to address these and other issues.




Venezuela remains on the Priority Watch List in 2014. Issues of continuing concern include:

questions about the consistency of domestic laws and international obligations resulting from the

2008 reinstatement of the 1955 Industrial Property Law; the status of trademarks that were

registered under the Andean Community law prior to Venezuela’s withdrawal from the Andean

Community; and lack of enforcement against counterfeiting and piracy, both physical and online.

The United States also continues to encourage Venezuela to provide an effective system for 47


protecting against the unfair commercial use, as well as unauthorized disclosure, of undisclosed

test or other data generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical products.






Barbados remains on the Watch List in 2014. The United States continues to be concerned in

Barbados and throughout the Caribbean region about the interception and retransmission of

United States cable programming by local cable operators without the consent of, and without

adequately compensating, United States rights holders. The United States also continues to have

concerns in Barbados and throughout the region about the refusal of local TV and radio

broadcasters and cable/satellite operators to pay for public performances of music. (See Section

I). The United States urges the Government of Barbados to take all administrative actions

necessary, without undue delay, to ensure that all composers and songwriters receive the

royalties they are owed for the public performance of their musical works. In addition, the

United States urges the Government of Barbados to adopt copyright legislation that protects

works in both the physical and online environments and to take steps to prevent the unauthorized

and uncompensated retransmission of copyrighted musical and audiovisual content. The United

States looks forward to working with Barbados to resolve these and other issues.



Belarus remains on the Watch List in 2014. Despite recent efforts to improve enforcement

against IP infringements, including methods for collecting and preserving evidence of IPR

violations involving the Internet, piracy and counterfeiting remain widespread. Belarus has still

not passed amendments to the Criminal, Administrative and Procedural codes originally

proposed in 2011, and has not yet established civil remedies or criminal penalties for online

piracy. The United States appreciates the government’s decision to approve the Eurasian

Economic Commission Board’s agreement on coordination of measures to protect IPR and

encourages Belarus to further harmonize its IPR regime with the regulatory principles adopted

under the Customs Union. For example, Belarus could improve the investigation of suspected

infringement cases, seizure of infringing goods, and prosecution of IPR violations by creating the

unified trademark registry and implementing and exercising the ex officio authority provisions of

the Customs Union Customs Code. The United States appreciates recent outreach by Belarus on

IPR matters and looks forward to working with Belarus on these and other issues.




Bolivia remains on the Watch List in 2014. The Government of Bolivia has undertaken public

awareness efforts and has made some enforcement attempts, but rampant piracy and

counterfeiting persist. The United States encourages Bolivia to take steps to improve its

enforcement of IPR, including by improving coordination among Bolivian enforcement

authorities and with the authorities of its neighboring countries. 48




Brazil remains on the Watch List in 2014. Brazil continues on a generally positive trajectory

regarding both its domestic intellectual property rights (IPR) policy and its enforcement of IPR.

Brazil has taken steps to address a backlog of pending patent and trademark applications,

including by authorizing the hiring of for new examiners, but very long delays still exist. Brazil

has also continued to make progress in enhancing the effectiveness of IPR enforcement,

conducting raids across the country under the coordination of the National Council to Combat

Piracy. Significant concerns remain with respect to the high levels of counterfeiting and piracy,

including Internet piracy; however, positive strides have been made in the area of pay-television

piracy. Although laudable enforcement efforts also have occurred at the border, greater

emphasis on this challenge is needed, particularly in the tri-border region, including the issuance

of more deterrent penalties in such cases. Concerns also persist with respect to Brazil’s

inadequate protection against unfair commercial use of undisclosed test and other data generated

to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical products. In addition, regulations that provide

Brazil’s health authority, the National Sanitary Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), with the

authority to review pharmaceutical patent applications for patentability requirements are not

transparent or predictable and appear to contravene earlier opinions by the Federal Attorney

General, which clarified that ANVISA does not have such authority. The United States is also

concerned about a series of lawsuits recently filed by Brazil’s National Industrial Property

Institute (INPI) seeking to invalidate or shorten the term of certain “mailbox” patents for

pharmaceutical and agrochemical products. The United States believes it is important for Brazil

to continue to create an IP climate that affords both domestic and foreign IP holders with

incentives to invest in the market. We look forward to engaging constructively with Brazil in

support of its work in the IPR arena and to address remaining concerns.




Bulgaria is on the Watch List in 2014. Despite some limited improvements, the United States

continues to have serious concerns regarding IPR infringement in Bulgaria. Copyright piracy

over the Internet in Bulgaria remains a significant problem in this market. Numerous online

infringing services operate in the market and enforcement actions seldom result in convictions or

deterrent sentences. Investigations on copyright piracy, including against enterprise end-user

software piracy, initiated by the Bulgarian anti-cybercrime unit have stalled because that unit’s

responsibilities and personnel were transferred to a different agency. The number of working

sessions of the Council for IPR Protection have declined and there are fewer staff in the

Copyright Office of the Ministry of Culture, twin events that have weakened Bulgaria’s ability to

effectively enforce its IP laws. Collecting societies continue to report serious challenges in

collecting royalties and in enforcing their rights through administrative or judicial actions. High

levels of trademark counterfeiting also persist. The government has reduced staffing at the

Patent Office, which is responsible for registrations (e.g., patents and trademarks) as well as

certain enforcement functions (e.g., inspections, issuance of fines, and sentencing in cases

referred from criminal courts), thereby hindering that office’s ability to make sufficient routine

inspections or to conduct adequate enforcement. Bad faith trademark applications are also a 49


growing concern and are often granted due to these constraints at the Bulgarian Patent Office.

Unfortunately, a lack of coordination between investigation and prosecution authorities creates

inefficiencies in the effective enforcement of IP cases, which is compounded by inadequacies in

the Bulgarian judicial system. Generally, rights holders face significant delays in the

adjudication of IPR disputes, many of which do not reach final sentencing, and when they do,

remedies are not a deterrent to further infringements. Bulgaria’s government should coordinate

with rights holders and other interested parties, such as Internet service providers (ISPs), to

develop recommendations for reducing Internet piracy. We also encourage Bulgaria to engage in

meaningful follow-up on its Mass Software Compliance Campaign initiated by the Ministries of

Culture and Interior in early 2013. Notwithstanding these continuing issues, the United States

recognizes the positive steps Bulgaria has taken to address IPR infringement in its market. For

example, Bulgaria has been able to engage in certain enforcement actions, including those led by

the Ministry of Culture. The Ministry of Culture’s Copyright Office also facilitated a royalty

payment agreement between the holders of film rights and the Bulgarian Association of Cable

and Communication Operators (BACCHUS). The United States encourages Bulgaria to continue to

enhance its IPR protection and enforcement efforts and intensify its engagement on IPR public

awareness. The United States looks forward to continuing to work with Bulgaria to address

these and other issues.




Canada remains on the Watch List in 2014. On copyright issues, the United States welcomed the

passage of the Copyright Modernization Act in June 2012. As part of Canada’s implementation

of this law, the United States urges Canada to implement its WIPO Internet Treaties

commitments in a manner consistent with its international obligations and to continue to address

the challenges of copyright piracy in the digital age. Regarding border enforcement issues,

Canada re-introduced the Combating Counterfeit Products Act in October 2013 to strengthen

IPR enforcement. The bill included provisions that would provide ex officio authority to

Canadian customs officials to seize pirated and counterfeit goods at the border. The United

States supports Canada’s commitment to address the serious problem of pirated and counterfeit

goods entering our highly integrated supply chains and urges Canada, as it proceeds with this

legislation, to expand its scope to provide authority for its customs officials to take action against

such goods in-transit. With respect to pharmaceuticals, the United States continues to have

serious concerns about the availability of rights of appeal in Canada’s administrative process for

reviewing regulatory approval of pharmaceutical products. The United States also has serious

concerns about the lack of clarity and the impact of the heightened utility requirements for

patents that Canadian courts have applied recently. Under this amorphous and evolving

standard, courts can invalidate a patent on utility grounds by construing the “promise of a patent”

years after the patent has been granted, leading to uncertainty for patent holders and applicants

and undermining incentives for investment in the pharmaceutical sector. In applying this

standard, courts have invalidated a number of patents held by U.S. pharmaceutical companies,

finding now that those products lack utility (i.e., not capable of industrial application), even

though such products have been in the market and benefiting patients for years. The United 50


States will closely monitor developments on these issues and looks forward to continuing to

work with Canada to address these and other IPR issues, including through the TPP negotiations.




Colombia remains on the Watch List in 2014. The Government of Colombia has made tangible

progress in the areas of internal coordination of enforcement agencies, reducing patent

application backlogs, and training judges and law enforcement officials on IPR issues. However,

earlier progress on IPR legislation was reversed in 2013 when the Colombian Constitutional

Court invalidated on procedural grounds the law enacting many IPR-related commitments made

under the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (CTPA). Colombia has not yet

reestablished the provisions contained in the earlier invalidated law. In addition, Colombia’s

limitations on the patentability of certain pharmaceuticals and challenges related to

pharmaceutical and agrochemical data protection are areas of concern. The United States urges

Colombia to implement geographical indications protections in a manner that is consistent with

its obligations under the CTPA. Persistently high levels of both hard goods and Internet piracy

continue to plague the country in spite of periodic, laudable enforcement efforts. For example,

Colombia’s San Andresitos markets remain rife with counterfeit and pirated products and were

again named in USTR’s Notorious Markets List in 2013. Greater enforcement attention is

needed to disrupt organized distribution of illicit goods, including in the border areas. The

United States looks forward to continuing constructive engagement with Colombia on these and

other matters.


Costa Rica


Costa Rica remains on the Watch List in 2014. Costa Rica’s efforts to address certain

longstanding problems have not yet taken hold and new problems have arisen in the meantime.

Several long-term concerns relate to weak IPR enforcement. Few criminal prosecutions result in

deterrent-level sentencing in Costa Rica, despite growing evidence of links between certain IPR

infringement and organized crime. The United States applauded a 2011 announcement that a

specialized IPR prosecution unit would be created, but it is unclear whether that initiative is

actually underway. Similarly, while the government of Costa Rica announced a plan in 2010 to

ensure that the government would use only licensed software, progress has been limited until

recently, and actual results remain unknown. Costa Rican law still allows Internet service

providers (ISPs) 45 days to forward infringement notices to subscribers, which represents a very

long period of time, especially considering that certain content may be of relatively short-term

interest to the public. Pharmaceutical patent holders report a number of concerns, including

poorly defined exceptions to Costa Rica’s data exclusivity regime. The United States

encourages Costa Rica to engage with the private sector and other interested parties as it

evaluates legislative reforms relating to health care. In terms of new problems, initial

administrative determinations on applications to register certain geographical indications present

a notable concern, as first-level authorities seemed not to acknowledge relevant evidence

presented by interested parties in opposition. At the same time, Costa Rica has taken positive

steps forward. Costa Rica has rolled out an electronically searchable trademark database, it has 51


compiled better enforcement statistics, and it has formed and trained a new border police unit,

which could have a positive impact on IPR enforcement. Given Costa Rica’s demonstrated

ability to address issues of its choosing, the United States urges Costa Rica to develop clear plans

to tackle longstanding problems and to demonstrate tangible progress in implementing those

plans prior to the next Special 301 review.


Dominican Republic


The Dominican Republic remains on the Watch List in 2014. While several positive

developments merit recognition, substantial concerns remain, especially with respect to the

widespread availability of pirated and counterfeit products. In terms of steps forward,

Dominican Republic authorities have provided more effective regulatory protection against

pharmaceutical patent infringement and have in individual cases provided for the protection of

undisclosed test and other data generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical

products against unfair commercial use and unauthorized disclosure, although the United States

urges the Dominican Republic to clarify the governing procedural frameworks. The Dominican

Republic has also made a trademark database available online. Nevertheless, IPR enforcement

agencies in the Dominican Republic continue to experience a lack of coordination, resources,

and training. As an example, the Dominican Republic reports enhanced enforcement efforts to

address cable signal piracy, yet the private sector has not observed a substantial resulting impact.

A major and unresolved problem is the Dominican Republic’s large backlog of pending patent

applications. Over 1,300 patent applications were pending as of January 2014, whereas less than

250 patent certificates were issued from 2000-2013. The multi-year delays in the patent

application and examination process highlight the urgent need to reduce the backlog and to

address outstanding concerns to implement CAFTA-DR obligations with respect to patent term

adjustment. The United States looks forward to continuing to work with the Dominican

Republic to address these and other issues.




Ecuador remains on the Watch List in 2014. The United States is very concerned about the

recent de-criminalization of IPR infringement. Ecuador continues to experience high levels of

piracy and counterfeiting and relatively low levels of enforcement. The repeal of the criminal

enforcement provisions will only exacerbate the situation. On a positive note, Ecuador's

Institute for Intellectual Property (IEPI) has undertaken public awareness efforts to attempt to

address the rampant IP theft occurring in Ecuador, including at La Bahia, a 2013 Notorious

Market. However, the United States remains concerned about the institutional weakening of

IEPI under a 2012 government reorganization. Furthermore, IEPI’s 2012 enactment of exorbitant

fees for patent and plant variety registration and maintenance, and the lack of protection against

unfair commercial use, as well as unauthorized disclosure, of undisclosed test or other data

generated to obtain marketing approval for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products

could have an adverse effect on foreign investment in those sectors. 52




Egypt remains on the Watch List in 2014. IPR challenges for Egypt include the failure to obtain

deterrent-level sentences for IPR violations that are prosecuted and the need for additional

training for enforcement officials. Egypt has not issued regulations to clarify border procedures

for the destruction of counterfeit and pirated products and to provide customs officials with the

authority to take ex officio action. The United States urges Egypt to clarify its protection against

the unfair commercial use, as well as unauthorized disclosure, of undisclosed test or other data

generated to obtain marketing approval of pharmaceutical products. Although Egypt is working

to upgrade its trademark system, rights holders have expressed concerns about the registration of

trademarks filed in bad-faith. Rights holders have reported certain market access impediments,

such as fees and taxes applied to foreign films. The United States appreciates Egypt’s recent

engagement on many of these and other IPR issues and stands ready to work with Egypt to

improve its IPR regime.




Finland remains on the Watch List in 2014. The United States continues to be concerned about

the lack of product patent protection for certain pharmaceutical products. U.S. industry also has

expressed concern that the regulatory framework in Finland regarding process patents filed

before 1995, and pending in 1996, denies adequate protection to many of the top-selling U.S.

pharmaceutical products currently on the Finnish market. The United States looks forward to

continuing to work with Finland to address these and other issues.




Greece remains on the Watch List in 2014. U.S. concerns continue with respect to several IPR

protection and enforcement issues in Greece. The United States encourages Greece to continue

its efforts to implement the 2009 IPR Action Plan, which identifies many of these priority issues.

Greece should fully implement legislation and regulations that provide administrative fines for

software infringement. Greece should also take steps to ensure that it has effective legal

mechanisms to address piracy over the Internet, including by implementing existing measures

that allow civil actions by rights holders concerning piracy over the Internet, as well as by

providing ISPs with clear incentives to cooperate with rights holders in removing unauthorized

content. The lack of adequate governmental resources to combat piracy over the Internet has

exacerbated this growing problem. In addition, Greece should expand on its enforcement efforts

to address the continuing widespread availability of pirated and counterfeit goods. The United

States also continues to encourage Greece to address key challenges facing IPR enforcement in

the Greek judicial system, including significant delays and few infringement convictions.

Greece has made progress, however, in a few key areas. There has been positive development in

trademark protection particularly by passing a new trademark law which established the Illegal

Trade Coordination Center (SYKAP). Moreover, national police, customs, and financial police

also conducted investigations which resulted in seizures of counterfeit and pirated goods. In

particular, rights holders have experienced excellent cooperation with the Tax Police in 53


addressing enterprise end-user software piracy. The United States looks forward to continuing to

work with Greece to address these and other issues.




Guatemala remains on the Watch List in 2014. While a number of problems remain outstanding,

the United States applauds the Government of Guatemala’s willingness to consider U.S.

perspectives and concerns as Guatemala amended its laws and regulations relating to protections

for geographical indications. Administrative authorities in Guatemala recently issued rulings on

applications to register geographical indications (GIs) that appear sound and well-reasoned for

compound GI names, but U.S. exporters remain concerned that rulings on single-name GIs,

particularly related to dairy products, may prohibit new marketing opportunities for those

products in Guatemala. On another positive note, enforcement activity increased in 2013 as

compared to 2012, although it remained relatively ineffective given the scale of IPR

infringement in Guatemala. Pirated and counterfeit goods continue to be widely available in

Guatemala, and enforcement efforts are hampered by limited resources and the need for better

coordination among all enforcement agencies. Trademark squatting is a significant concern, as

administrative remedies are inadequate and relief through the courts is slow and expensive.

Government use of unlicensed software is another problem that remains largely unaddressed.

While the United States was encouraged by the 2011 enactment of legislation to strengthen

penalties against the production and distribution of counterfeit medicines, and some enforcement

efforts were initiated very recently, the United States is not aware of any successful prosecutions

under the law. The United States urges Guatemala to engage with private industry and other

interested parties regarding the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights for

pharmaceutical products and related legislative initiatives. The United States encourages

Guatemala to sustain and further increase its enforcement efforts against the manufacture of

pirated and counterfeit goods, and to take steps to improve the operation of its judicial system.

The United States looks forward to continuing to work with Guatemala to address these and

other matters.




Jamaica remains on the Watch List in 2014. The United States continues to encourage Jamaica

to pass the long-awaited Patent and Designs Act. In the area of copyright, Jamaica is one of

several Caribbean countries with deficiencies related to protection and enforcement. (See

Section I). For several years, Jamaica has been identified by rights holders as one of the region’s

most problematic markets with respect to the unlicensed and uncompensated cable-casting and

broadcasting of copyrighted music. Jamaica has taken steps to ensure its regulatory agencies are

monitoring broadcasting entities and has pledged an open door policy to rights holders to discuss

their specific IP-related concerns. However, Jamaica maintains a statutory licensing regime for

the retransmission of copyrighted television programming but has not consistently enforced the

payment of statutory royalties to rights holders. The United States looks forward to continuing

to work with Jamaica to address these and other issues. 54




Although Kuwait remains on the Watch List, the United States will conduct an Out-of-Cycle

Review (OCR) in September 2014 to determine whether to elevate Kuwait to the Priority Watch

List. The review is prompted both by Kuwait’s failure for more than 14 years to draft and pass

amendments to its copyright law to meet international standards, and the recent sharp decline in

enforcement actions against copyright and trademark infringement. If Kuwait does not introduce

to the National Assembly legislation which will result in a copyright law that is consistent with

international standards and does not resume enforcement against copyright and trademark

infringement by the time of the OCR, Kuwait will be moved to the Priority Watch List. The

United States notes that the Kuwait Customs IPR Office has not halted its IP enforcement efforts,

and commends the work by that office. The United States remains willing to work with Kuwait

on these important issues.




Lebanon remains on the Watch List in 2014. The United States continues to encourage Lebanon

to make progress on pending IPR legislative reforms, including amendments to Lebanon’s patent

and copyright laws and efforts to accede to the WIPO Internet treaties. The United States

encourages the Parliament to approve several additional IPR treaties that have been forwarded by

the Cabinet, including the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, the Berne

Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the Singapore Treaty on the Law

of Trademarks, and the Patent Cooperation Treaty. Additionally, the United States encourages

Lebanon to provide its Cyber Crime and Intellectual Property Rights Bureau (CCIPRB) with ex

officio enforcement authority as well as to provide all of its enforcement authorities with

adequate resources to carry out their enforcement functions. The United States looks forward to

continuing to work with Lebanon to address these and other issues.




Mexico remains on the Watch List in 2014. Positive developments in Mexico in 2013 included

entry into force of the Madrid Protocol, implementation of amendments to the copyright law that

allow rights holders to seek damages in civil courts before an administrative infringement

decision is issued or becomes final, and progress in the destruction of seized illegal goods,

although overall seizure numbers have declined. However, serious concerns remain, particularly

with respect to the widespread availability of pirated and counterfeit goods in Mexico, including

at the Notorious Markets Tepito and San Juan de Dios, and also increased Internet piracy due in

part to higher broadband penetration. Although coordination has been increasing, criminal

enforcement suffers from inefficient coordination among federal and sub-federal officials, as

well as a lack of resources. In addition, to combat high levels of IPR infringement, Mexico

needs to devote additional resources, bring more IPR-related prosecutions, and impose deterrent

penalties against infringers. The United States continues to urge Mexico to provide its customs

officials with ex officio authority and to enact legislation to strengthen its copyright regime,

including by fully implementing the WIPO Internet Treaties and providing stronger protection 55


against the unauthorized camcording of motion pictures in theaters. Prior to 2011, Mexican

customs authorities and the Attorney General’s Office worked jointly to intercept and prosecute

transshipments of counterfeit and pirated goods. Following a shift in policy, however, Mexican

authorities now only take action against transshipments of suspected infringing goods if there is

evidence of “intent for commercial gain” in Mexican territory, which is very difficult to prove.

The United States strongly urges Mexico to revert to the previous policy that allowed for the

interception of potentially dangerous counterfeit trademark goods in transit to the United States

and other countries. The United States looks forward to continuing to work with Mexico to

address these and other issues, including through the TPP negotiations.




Paraguay remains on the Watch List in 2014. In addition, the United States continues to monitor

Paraguay under Section 306. The Government of Paraguay has taken positive steps toward

strengthening IPR, particularly since President Cartes took office in August 2013. On October

10, 2013, President Cartes signed the implementing regulation (Decree 460) for Law 4798 of

2012 that created the National Directorate of Intellectual Property (DINAPI). DINAPI is now the

Paraguayan government authority responsible for the issuance and protection of copyrights,

trademarks, patents, industrial designs, and geographical indications. Additionally, the law

authorizes DINAPI’s enforcement arm, the General Enforcement Directorate, to conduct

administrative investigations and initiate proceedings at customs checkpoints and businesses.

Decree 460 also mandates the creation of a National IPR Policy, which has yet to be drafted. In

December 2013, DINAPI granted pharmaceutical patents to two U.S. companies, the first patents

reportedly granted since 2005. DINAPI has also undertaken outreach to the public, signed inter-

institutional cooperative agreements to improve IPR protection and enforcement, and has stepped

up enforcement operations, including at the border. The United States looks forward to working

constructively with Paraguay to address enforcement and other challenges, and to conclude

negotiations re-launched in March 2014 on a bilateral IPR Memorandum of Understanding

(MOU). Upon successful conclusion of the MOU, USTR will initiate an Out-of-Cycle Review

to remove Paraguay from the Watch List.




Peru remains on the Watch List in 2014. The United States remains concerned about the

widespread availability of counterfeit and pirated products in Peru. The United States urges Peru

to devote additional resources for IPR enforcement, improve coordination among enforcement

agencies, enhance its border controls, and strengthen its judicial system. The United States

encourages Peru to coordinate enforcement and pursue prosecutions under the law that

criminalizes the sale of counterfeit medicines. In addition, the United States urges Peru to take

steps to implement its obligations under the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

regarding the prevention of government use of unlicensed software, and likewise urges steps to

implement obligations with respect to protections against piracy over the Internet, which

continues to be a growing problem. Peru also needs to clarify its protections for

biotechnologically-derived pharmaceutical products. The United States looks forward to 56


continuing to work with Peru to address these and other issues, including through the TPP





Romania remains on the Watch List in 2014. Despite positive instances of collaboration

between the Romanian government and stakeholders, systemic concerns remain with respect to

IPR protection and enforcement in that market. The United States encourages Romania to

prioritize IPR protection and enforcement and urges Romania to devote the necessary resources

and training for authorities to effectively address the continuing problems of piracy and

counterfeiting. In 2013, for example, the number of enforcement actions taken dropped

significantly when compared to 2012. Additionally, the General Prosecutor’s IPR coordination

department lacks sufficient staff. Romania should also take steps to address concerns over

judicial delays and a lack of deterrent-level sentencing. Piracy over the Internet remains a

serious concern, and more enforcement efforts are needed to address the problem. While some

concerns persist, Romania has taken some positive steps. For example, cooperation between law

enforcement, prosecutors, and IP-based industry groups continues to be close and effective at the

working level. Notably, the GPO IPR Department also drafted guidelines for conducting

Internet piracy investigations, and issued new procedures for prosecuting IPR crimes, which

came into force on January 1, 2014. Notably, these procedures have resulted in positive

enforcement actions against online piracy and counterfeiting. The United States looks forward to

continuing to work with Romania to address these and other issues.




Tajikistan remains on the Watch List in 2014. The United States urges Tajikistan to implement

fully amendments of its Customs Code to provide ex officio authority to its customs and criminal

enforcement officials, as discussed in connection with Tajikistan’s WTO accession. The United

States continues to recommend that Tajikistan increase prosecutions of criminal IPR

infringement, and address optical disc piracy as well as reports of government use of unlicensed

software. The United States looks forward to continuing to work with Tajikistan to increase its

enforcement capacity in general, and to advance Tajikistan’s implementation of commitments

made as part of Tajikistan’s WTO accession process.


Trinidad and Tobago


Trinidad and Tobago remains on the Watch List in 2014. The United States continues to urge

the Government of Trinidad and Tobago to enforce the copyright provisions of its cable license

agreements against cable operators who refuse to negotiate with the Copyright Music

Organization of Trinidad and Tobago (“COTT”), the local performing rights organization, for

compensation for public performance of music, including for music written by American

composers. Particularly troubling is the situation with local cable operator FLOW. A court in

2011 found that FLOW is required to obtain a public performance license from and pay all

applicable fees to COTT. However, nearly three years later, judicial authorities have not 57


completed the appeal hearing nor assessed royalties owed to COTT. Furthermore,

notwithstanding this decision, the local cable operator has failed to obtain the required public

performance license, in violation of its cable license agreement with the government. The

United States urges the Government of Trinidad and Tobago to take all necessary actions to

ensure that the terms of such licenses be fulfilled or that those licenses be terminated. The

United States also urges the Government of Trinidad and Tobago to address optical media piracy

and other forms of IPR infringement. These issues affect not only American artists but

Caribbean artists as well. The United States looks forward to continuing to work with Trinidad

and Tobago to address these and other issues.




Turkey remains on the Watch List in 2014. U.S. rights holders continue to raise serious concerns

regarding the export from, and transshipment through, Turkey of counterfeit and pirated

products. In particular, industry has expressed concern about the manufacture of counterfeited

luxury goods, digital media, and textiles. Software piracy is also a growing problem. Serial

code crackers and key generators used to gain unlawful access to software are commonly

available, and in some cases, computers sold at retail stores are preloaded with illegal software.

Legislative proposals intended to improve copyright and industrial property protections have not

yet been finalized and passed. Adequate, transparent, and effective enforcement of IPR remains

a significant challenge in Turkey, including due to obstacles posed by judicial delays, rarity of

deterrent-level penalties, and the fact that the Turkish National Police lack ex officio authority.

However, the United States congratulates Turkey on several successful enforcement initiatives

resulting in the prosecution of individuals selling counterfeit medicines online and the seizure of

printing presses and materials used to counterfeit pharmaceutical packaging, as well as the

seizure of pirated books, counterfeited food products, and counterfeited cancer treatments. In

addition, the United States notes that the Turkish National Police, Turkish Patent Institute, and

Ministry of Culture and Tourism, as well as other agencies in the Turkish government,

participated in several training, coordination, and public education initiatives, and the United

States looks forward to seeing this productive cooperation between Turkey, WIPO, the United

States, INTERPOL, and others continue. The United States looks forward to working with

Turkey on these and other issues.




Turkmenistan remains on the Watch List in 2014. In 2012, Turkmenistan adopted a Law on

Copyright and Allied Rights and amended its Civil Code to enhance IPR protection. However,

Turkmenistan reportedly has yet to provide for effective administrative, civil or criminal

procedures or penalties for enforcement of these rights. The United States urges Turkmenistan

to provide for such enforcement procedures, including but not limited to ex officio authority for

its customs officials. In addition, the United States continues to strongly encourage

Turkmenistan to join the Berne Convention on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and

the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized 58


Duplication of their Phonographs (Geneva Phonograms Convention). The United States looks

forward to continuing to work with Turkmenistan on these and other issues.




Uzbekistan remains on the Watch List in 2014. The United States congratulates Uzbekistan on

the long-awaited passage of legislation that resulted in withdrawal of Uzbekistan’s reservation to

Article 18 of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, which

relates to the protection of works created before 2005. However, the Uzbekistani Parliament

should immediately take several legislative steps to address longstanding deficiencies in IPR

protection. Specifically, it should: (1) approve Uzbekistan joining the Convention for the

Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of their Phonographs

(Geneva Phonograms Convention); (2) approve Uzbekistan’s accession to the WIPO Copyright

Treaty and WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WIPO Internet Treaties); and (3) take

legislative action to provide adequate copyright protection for foreign sound recordings.

Additionally, Uzbekistan should provide additional resources to the Agency for Intellectual

Property and other enforcement agencies as well as ex officio authority to initiate investigations

and enforcement actions, including at the border. Uzbekistan also lacks deterrent-level penalties

for IPR infringement. The United States will continue to engage with Uzbekistan on these IPR





Vietnam remains on the Watch List in 2014. Although Vietnam took certain steps to improve its

regulatory framework in 2012 and 2013 by passing decrees and issuing circulars to strengthen

copyright protection and enforcement, significant areas of concern remain. Piracy and sales of

counterfeit goods over the Internet are a growing concern, and counterfeit goods also remain

widely available in physical markets. In addition, book piracy, software piracy (including on

government computer systems), and cable and satellite signal theft continue to be widespread.

Although Vietnam took further steps to improve public awareness efforts, Vietnam has made

little progress in advancing enforcement actions. Enforcement agencies continue to have

capacity constraints, due in part to a lack of resources and IPR expertise, and the lack of

coordination among the agencies with enforcement jurisdiction is a further complicating factor.

Vietnam should clarify its system for protecting against the unfair commercial use, as well as

unauthorized disclosure, of undisclosed test or other data generated to obtain marketing approval

for pharmaceutical products. While Vietnam has broad laws criminalizing IPR crimes, the

government has yet to draft the implementing guidelines that are necessary for law enforcement

agencies and the courts to levy deterrent criminal penalties against IPR violators. The United

States looks forward to continuing to work with Vietnam to address these and other issues,

including in the TPP negotiations. 59





Special 301 Statutory Authority


Pursuant to the Special 301 statutory mandate, Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended

by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 and the Uruguay Round Agreements

Act of 1994 (19 U.S.C. § 2242), USTR is required to identify “those foreign countries that deny

adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable market

access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection.” The USTR shall

only designate countries that have the most onerous or egregious acts, policies, or practices and

whose acts, policies, or practices have the greatest adverse impact (actual or potential) on the

relevant U.S. products as Priority Foreign Countries. Priority Foreign Countries are potentially

subject to an investigation under the Section 301 provisions of the Trade Act of 1974. USTR

may not designate a country as a Priority Foreign Country if it is entering into good faith

negotiations or making significant progress in bilateral or multilateral negotiations to provide

adequate and effective protection of IPR. USTR is required to decide whether to identify

countries within 30 days after issuance of the annual National Trade Estimate Report. In

addition, USTR may identify a trading partner as a Priority Foreign Country or re-designate the

trading partner whenever warranted.


USTR has created a Priority Watch List and Watch List under the Special 301 provisions.

Placement of a trading partner on the Priority Watch List or Watch List indicates that particular

problems exist in that country with respect to IPR protection, enforcement, or market access for

persons relying on IPR. Countries placed on the Priority Watch List are the focus of increased

bilateral attention concerning the problem areas.


Additionally, under Section 306, USTR monitors a trading partner’s compliance with measures

that are the basis for resolving an investigation under Section 301. USTR may apply sanctions if

a country fails to satisfactorily implement such measures.


The Trade Policy Staff Committee, in particular the Special 301 Subcommittee, in advising

USTR on the implementation of Special 301, obtains information from and holds consultations

with the private sector, U.S. embassies, foreign governments, and the U.S. Congress, among

other sources. 60






In addition to identifying concerns, this Report also highlights opportunities for the U.S.

Government to work closely with trading partners to address those concerns. The U.S.

Government collaborates with various trading partners on IPR-related training and capacity

building around the world. Domestically and abroad, bilaterally, and in regional groupings, the

U.S. Government remains engaged in building stronger, more streamlined, and more effective

systems for the protection and enforcement of IPR.


Although many trading partners have enacted IPR legislation, a lack of criminal prosecutions and

deterrent sentencing has reduced the effectiveness of IPR enforcement in many regions. These

problems result from several factors, including a lack of knowledge of IPR law on the part of

judges and enforcement officials, and insufficient enforcement resources. The United States

welcomes steps by a number of trading partners to educate their judiciary and enforcement

officials on IPR matters. The United States will continue to work collaboratively with trading

partners to address these issues.


The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), through the Global Intellectual Property

Academy (GIPA) and the Office of Policy and International Affairs offers programs in the

United States and around the world to provide education, training, and capacity building on IPR

protection, commercialization, and enforcement. These programs are offered to patent,

trademark, and copyright officials, judges and prosecutors, police and customs officials, foreign

policy makers, and U.S. rights holders.


Other U.S. Government agencies bring foreign government and private sector representatives to

the United States on study tours to meet with IPR professionals and to visit the institutions and

businesses responsible for developing, protecting, and promoting IPR in the United States. One

such program is the Department of State’s International Visitors Leadership Program, which

brings groups from around the world to cities across the United States to learn more about IPR

and related trade and business issues.


Overseas, the U.S. Government is also active in partnering to provide training, technical

assistance, capacity building, exchange of best practices, and other collaborative activities to

improve IPR protection and enforcement. The following are examples of these programs.


 In 2013, GIPA provided training to 7,078 foreign IPR officials from 135 countries,

through 114 separate programs. Attendees included IPR policy makers, judges,

prosecutors, customs officers, and examiners, and training topics covered the entire

spectrum of IPR. Post-training surveys demonstrated that 100 percent of all attendees

reported that they had taken some steps to implement positive policy change in their

respective organizations.


 GIPA also has produced seven free distance-learning modules, available on its website in

multiple languages (English, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Russian). There have been 61


over 41,460 hits on those modules since being placed on the site in early



 In addition, the USPTO’s Office of Policy and International Affairs provides capacity

building in countries around the world, and has concluded agreements with 20 national,

regional, and international IPR organizations, such as the United Kingdom Intellectual

Property Office (UKIPO), Japan Patent Office (JPO), European Patent Office (EPO),

German Patent and Trademark Office (DPMA), Government Agencies of the People’s

Republic of China, Mexican Institute of Industrial Property (IMPI), the Korean

Intellectual Property Office (Exists), and the World Intellectual Property Organization

(WIPO). These partnerships help establish a framework for joint development of

informational, educational IP content, technical cooperation, and classification activities.


 The Department of Commerce’s International Trade Administration (SO) collaborates

with the private sector to develop programs to heighten the awareness of the dangers of

counterfeit products and of the economic value of IPR to national economies.

Additionally, ITA develops and shares small business tools to help domestic and foreign

businesses understand IPR. SO, working closely with other U.S. Government agencies

and foreign partners, developed and made available IPR training materials in English,

Spanish, and French. Under the auspices of the Transatlantic IPR Working Group, SO

worked closely with the European Union’s Directorate General for Enterprise and

Industry to establish a Transatlantic IPR Portal so the resources of our respective

governments are quickly and easily accessible to the public. All of the ITA-developed

resources, including the Transatlantic IPR Portal, as well as information and links to the

other programs identified in this Annex, are accessible via


 In 2013, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Homeland Security

Investigations (HSI), through the National IPR Coordination Center (IPR Center) and in

conjunction with INTERPOL, conducted law enforcement training programs in India,

Mexico, Morocco, Algeria, Botswana, Zambia, Namibia, Malawi, Singapore and

Thailand, and in France for countries from Southeast Asia. ICE-HSI trained officials and

police officers from Mexico, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Fiji, Singapore,

Algeria, Morocco, Botswana, Malawi, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The IPR

Center also conducted advanced training programs at the International Law Enforcement

Academies (ILEAs) in Botswana, El Salvador, Hungary, and Peru for participants from

26 countries.


 The Department of State provides training funds each year to U.S. Government agencies

that provide IPR enforcement training and technical assistance to foreign governments.

The agencies that provide such training include the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ),

USPTO, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and ICE. In 2013, the Department 62


of State provided funds for 18 training programs for customs, police, and judicial

officials from various trading partners, including Pakistan, Mexico, Indonesia, and the

Philippines as well as regional trainings in Central America, Southeast Asia, and the

Middle East. The U.S. Government works collaboratively on many of these training

programs with the private sector and with various international entities such as WIPO and



 IPR protection is a main focus of the government-to-government technical assistance

provided by the Commerce Department’s Commercial Law Development Program

(CLDP). CLDP programs address enforcement and adjudication of disputes, as well as

IPR protection and its impact on the economy, IPR law compliance with the WTO TRIPS

Agreement, IPR curricula in law schools, and public awareness campaigns. CLDP

supports capacity building in innovation and technology transfer as well as in patent

examination and copyright management in many countries worldwide. CLDP also works

with the judiciary in various trading partners to improve the skills to effectively

adjudicate IPR cases, and conducts interagency coordination programs to highlight the

value of a whole-of-government approach to IPR protection and enforcement.


 The Department of Justice Criminal Division, using funding provided by and in

cooperation with the Department of State, and in cooperation with other U.S. agencies,

provides IPR enforcement training to foreign officials. Topics covered in these programs

include investigating and prosecuting cases under intellectual property,

economic/financial and organized crime statutes, combatting Internet piracy,

intragovernmental and international cooperation and information sharing, obtaining and

using electronic evidence; and the general importance of reducing counterfeiting and

piracy. Major ongoing initiatives include multiple programs in Central and Eastern

Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa.


 The U.S. Copyright Office, often in conjunction with various international visitor

programs, hosts international visitors, including foreign government officials, to discuss

and exchange information on the U.S. copyright system, its registration and recordation

functions, and various international copyright issues. Staff also participates in a number

of conferences in the United States and abroad to discuss current copyright issues and

inform the public about the activities of the Copyright Office.


The United States reports annually to the WTO on its IPR capacity building efforts, including

most recently in October 2013. (See Technical Cooperation Activities: Information from

Members – United States, IP/C/W/594/Add.6). 63






The United States continues to work with other governments, in consultation with U.S. copyright

industries and other affected sectors, to develop strategies to address global IPR issues. In 1996,

two new treaties were concluded at the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): the

WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (PPT).

Following their entry into force in 2002, these treaties have raised the standard of copyright

protection around the world, particularly with regard to Internet-based delivery of copyrighted

content. The WIPO Internet Treaties clarified certain exclusive rights and require signatories to

provide adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of

certain technological measures as well as certain acts affecting rights management information.

A growing number of trading partners are implementing the WIPO Internet Treaties to create a

legal environment conducive to investment and growth in legitimate Internet-related businesses,

services, and technologies.


As of April 2014, there are 92 contracting parties to the WPPT and 91 contracting parties to the

WCT. Other trading partners have implemented key provisions of these treaties in their national

laws without formally ratifying them. The United States urges other governments to ratify and

implement the provisions of the WIPO Internet Treaties.


The following trading partner became party to the WCT between January 2013 and March 2014:

Algeria Entry into Force: January 31, 2014

The following trading partner became party to the WPPT between January 2013 and March



Algeria Entry into Force: January 31, 2014